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ေရွးရခုိင္၊ဗမာမင္းညီမင္းဆက္မ်ားႏွင္႔ခုသကၠရာဇ္မ်ား

 

ျမန္မာ႔ မင္းဆက္မ်ား ( Burma Dynesties )

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ မင္းဆက္မ်ား

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ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ မင္းဆက္မ်ား

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ မင္းဆက္မ်ား ပထမတေကာင္းမင္းဆက္ဒုတိယတေကာင္းမင္းဆက္သေရေခတၱရာပထမမင္းဆက္သေရေခတၱရာဒုတိယမင္းဆက္ပုဂံမင္းဆက္ပင္းယမင္းဆက္စစ္ကိုင္းမင္းဆက္မဂဒူး မင္းဆက္အင္း၀မင္းဆက္ေတာင္ငူမင္းဆက္မြန္မင္းဆက္ရခုိင္မင္းဆက္ေညာင္ရမ္းမင္းဆက္ကုန္းေဘာင္ မင္းဆက္
ထင္ရွားေသာ မင္းမ်ား ပုပၸါးေစာရဟန္းမင္းအေနာ္ရထာက်န္စစ္သားအေလာင္းစည္သူငါးစီးရွင္ေက်ာ္စြာသတိုးမင္းဖ်ား၀ါရီရူးရာဇာဓိရာဇ္ပထမမင္းေခါင္ရွင္ေစာပုဓမၼေစတီေရႊနန္းေက်ာ့ရွင္နရပတိသိုဟန္ဘြားတပင္ေရႊထီးဘုရင့္ေနာင္နတ္သွ်င္ေနာင္ေညာင္ရမ္းမင္းတရားႀကီးအေနာက္ဖက္လြန္မင္းသာလြန္မင္းအေလာင္းမင္းတရားဆင္ျဖဴရွင္ဘုိးေတာ္ဘုရားမင္းတုန္းမင္းသီေပါမင္း
အေၾကာင္းအရာမ်ား သကၠရာဇ္တ်ံၾတစ္အယူဝါဒသရပါတံခါးျမေစတီေက်ာက္စာကာခ်င္းရာဇာဓိရာဇ္အေရးေတာ္ပုံက်မ္းအင္း၀-ဟံသာ၀တီ အႏွစ္ေလးဆယ္စစ္ရတုေနာင္႐ိုးတိုက္ပြဲကေမာၻဇသာဒီ နန္းေတာ္မဟာရာဇဝင္ႀကီးသာလြန္မင္းလက္ထက္ အမိန္႔ျပန္တမ္းမ်ားျမင္ကြန္း ျမင္းခုန္တိုင္ အေရးအခင္းပန္းထိမ္းမင္းသား အေရးအခင္းပဥၥမအႀကိမ္ သံဂၤါယနာတင္ျခင္းအဂၤလိပ္-ျမန္မာစစ္ပြဲမ်ားပါေတာ္မူျခင္း
ေဒသမ်ား တေကာင္းေျမာက္ဦးဗိႆႏိုးသေရေခတၱရာဟန္လင္း‎သထံုပုဂံပင္းယစစ္ကိုင္းအင္း၀မုတၱမဟံသာဝတီေတာင္ငူေရႊဘိုအမရပူရမႏၲေလး
တေကာင္းေခတ္ပ်ဴေခတ္ပုဂံေခတ္ပင္းယေခတ္အင္းဝေခတ္ေတာင္ငူေခတ္ေညာင္ရမ္းေခတ္ကုန္းေဘာင္ေခတ္ကုိလုိနီေခတ္ဂ်ပန္ေခတ္ပါလီမန္ဒီမိုကေရစီေခတ္ဆိုရွယ္လစ္ေခတ္န၀တေခတ္

Credit :http://aklatt2008.multiply.com/journal/item/16/16?&show_interstitial=1&u=%2Fjournal%2Fitem

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The following is a list of monarchs of Arakan. The dates before the Mrauk U period (1430–1784) are unattested.

Contents

Mythological

First Danyawaddy (2666–825 BCE)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Mara Yo 2666–2604
Mara Zi I 2604–2572 son
Mara Onlin 2572–2519 son
Mara Rwaylin 2519–2471 son
Mara Bin 2471–2416 son
Mara Zi II 2416–2383 son
Mara Kin 2383–2351 son
Nga Sha Po 2351–2330 usurper
Dwara Sanda 2330–2290 son of Mara Kin
Thola Sanda 2290–2257 son
Sanda Thuriya Sanda 2257–2220 son
Kala Sanda 2220–2180 son
Ti Sanda 2180–2149 son
Madhutha Sanda 2149–2129 son
Zeya Sanda 2129–2089 nephew
Mokkha Sanda 2089–2063 son
Gunna Sanda 2063–2051 son
Three Nobles 2051–2050 usurpers; reigned 7 days, 3 months, and 8 months successively
Kan Raza I 2050–2009 grandson of Gunna Sanda
Kan Raza II 2009–1973 brother
Athurinda Thuriya 1973–1938 uncle
Tharameta 1938–1880 son
Thuriya 1880–1849 son
Min Thi 1849–1827 brother
Min Ba 1827–1805 son
Si Aung 1805–1777 son
Tataingthin 1777–1746 brother
Kyaw-Khaung Win 1746–1715 son
Thuriya Nandameit 1715–1694 son
Athu Yindabaya 1694–1663 son
Letya Sithugyi 1663–1631 son
Thihaka 1631–1588 son
Min Bun Than 1588–1557 son
Thayet Hmwe 1557–1508 son
Zeya Nandathu 1508–1457 son
Tekkathu 1457–1411 son
Lekkhana 1411–1374 son
Gunnarit 1374–1326 son
Thiwarit 1326–1285 son
Min Hla Hmwe 1285–1254 son
Marinda 1254–1192 son
Theiddat Kumara 1192–1170 son
Min Hla I 1170–1123 son
Min Hla II 1123–1099 brother
Nga Sarit 1099–1061 son
Myet-hna Wun 1061–1030 son
Let Thut Kyi 1030–1003 son
Thiri Kamma Thunda 1003–972 brother
Nanda Kotabaya 972–945 son
Min Nan Phyu 945–925 son
Min Manu 925–897 son
Minkhaung 897–878 son
Laukkhaung Raza 878–838 son
Min Nge Pyaw-Hla-Si 838–832 son
Three nobles 832–825 usurpers

Second Danyawaddy (825 BCE–146 CE)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Kan Raza III 825–788
Thila Raza 788–740 son
Wasa Thura 740–709 son
Nandawi Thura 709–669 son
Puna Thuriya 669–637 son
Thuranda 637–614 son
Sandima 614–577 son
Thiri Sanda 577–537 son
Thiha Ran 537–491 brother
Thiha Nu 491–471 son
Payaka 471–440 son
Nela Gun 440–399 son
Rohaha Gun 399–368 son
Thiri Gun 368–344 son
Thamaza 344–309 nephew
Kummara 309–289 son
Thet Htin Phyu 289–249 son
Tha Bin U 249–207 son
Teza Wun 207–171 brother
Munzayaba 171–137 son
Kummara Withuddi 137–50 uncle
Wathu Mun Dala 50–16 son
Thurinda 16 BCE–15 CE son
Ralamayu 15–37 brother
Nalamayu 37–68 son
Wada Gun 68–90 son
Withu Raza 90–111 son
Thiri Raza 111–146 son

Third Danyawaddy (146–788)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Sanda Thuriya 146–198
Thuriya Dipati 198–245 son
Thuriya Patipat 245–298 son
Thuriya Rupa 298–313 son
Thuriya Mandala 313–375 son
Thuriya Wunna 375–418 son
Thuriya Natha 418–459 son
Thuriya Wuntha 459–468 son
Thuriya Banda 468–474 son
Thuriya Kalyana 474–492 son
Thuriya Mokkha 492–513 son
Thuriya Teza 513–544 son
Thuriya Ponnya 544–552 son
Thuriya Kala 552–575 son
Thuriya Pabba 575–600 son
Thuriya Sitya 600–618 son
Thuriya Thehta 618–640 son
Thuriya Wimala 640–648 son
Thuriya Renu 648–670 brother
Thuriya Gantha 670–686 son
Thuriya Thagya 686–694 uncle
Thuriya Thiri 694–714 son
Thuriya Kethi 714–723 son
Thuriya Kutta 723–746 son
Thuriya Ketu 746–788 son

Wethali (788–1018)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Maha Taing Sanda 788–810
Thuriya Taing Sanda 810–830 son
Mawla Taing Sanda 830–849 son
Pawla Taing Sanda 849–875 son
Kala Taing Sanda 875–884 son
Tula Taing Sanda 884–903 son
Thiri Taing Sanda 903–935 son
Thinkha Taing Sanda 935–951 son
Chula Taing Sanda 951–957 son
Amyahtu 957–964 Chief of Myu people
Ye Phyu 964–994 nephew
Nga Pin Nga Ton 994–1018 son of Chula Taing Sanda

Lemro (1018–1430)

Pyinsa (1018–1103)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Khittathin 1018–1028 grandnephew of Chula Taing Sanda
Sandathin 1028–1039 brother
Min Yin Phyu 1039–1049 son
Naga Thuriya 1049–1052 son
Thuriya Raza 1052–1054
Ponnaka 1054–1058
Min Phyugyi 1058–1060
Sithabin 1060–1061 usurper
Min Nangyi 1061–1066 son of Min Phyugyi
Min Lade 1066–1072
Min Kala 1072–1075
Min Bilu 1075–1078
Thinkhaya 1078–1092 usurper
Min Than 1092–1100 son
Min Pati 1100–1103 son

Parin (1103–1167)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Letya Min Nan 1103–1109 grandson of Min Bilu Pagan nominee; 1118 ascension per Pagan dates
Thihaba 1109–1110 son
Razagyi 1110–1112
Thagiwin I 1112–1115
Thagiwin II 1115–1133
Kawliya 1133–1153
Datharaza 1153–1165
Ananthiri 1165–1167

Khrit (1167–1180)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Minonsa 1167–1174 brother
Pyinsakawa 1174–1176 son
Keinnayok 1176–1179 son
Salinkabo 1179–1180 usurper

Second Pyinsa (1180–1237)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Misuthin 1180–1191 son of Pyinsakawa
Ngaranman 1191–1193 son
Ngapogan 1193–1195 son
Ngarakhaing 1195–1198
Ngakyon 1198–1201
Ngasu 1201–1205
Swe Thin 1205–1206
Minkhaung I 1206–1207
Minkhaung II 1207–1208
Kabalaung I 1208–1209
Kabalaung II 1209–1210
Letya I 1210–1218
Letya II 1218–1229
Thanabin 1229–1232
Nganathin 1232–1234
Nganalon 1234–1237

Launggyet (1237–1406)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Alawmaphyu 1237–1243 son
Razathu I 1243–1246 son
Sawlu 1246–1251 son
Uzana I 1251–1260 son
Saw Mun I 1260–1268 son
Nankyagyi 1268–1272 son
Min Bilu 1272–1276 son
Sithabin I 1276–1279 usurper
Min Hti 1279–? son of Min Bilu
No records
Saw Mun II 1374–1381 Ava‘s nominee
Swasawke’s son 1381–1385 nephew
Uzana II 1385–1387 of the royal blood
Thiwarit 1387–1390 brother
Thinhse 1390–1394 brother
Razathu II 1394–1395 son
Sithabin II 1395–1397 usurper
Myinhseingyi 1397 usurper
Razathu II 1397–1401 restored
Theinkhathu 1401–1404 brother
Min Saw Mun 1404–1406 nephew son of Razathu II

Interregnum (1406–1430)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Anawrahta 1406–1407 Ava‘s nominee
Hanthawaddy Pegu‘s nominee 1407–1412
Ava’s nominee 1412–1413
Pegu’s nominee 1413–1430? Pegu vassal until Razadarit‘s death (1422)

Mrauk U Kingdom (1430–1785)

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Min Saw Mun 1430–1434 Son of Razathu II Moved capital to Mrauk U in 1433
Min Khari 1434–1459 Brother
Ba Saw Phyu 1459–1482 Son
Dawlya 1482–1492 Son
Ba Saw Nyo 1492–1494 Uncle, son of Min Khari
Ran Aung 1494 Nephew, son of Dawlya
Salin Gathu 1494–1501 Maternal uncle
Min Raza 1501–1523 Son
Gazapati 1523–1525 Son
Min Saw O 1525 Granduncle, brother of Salin Gathu
Thatasa 1525–1531 Son of Dawlya
Min Bin 1531–1553 Son of Min Raza
Dikha 1553–1555 Son
Saw Hla 1555–1564 Son
Min Setya 1564–1571 Brother
Min Palaung 1571–1593 Son of Min Bin
Min Razagyi 1593–1612 Son
Min Khamaung 1612–1622 Son
Thiri Thudhamma 1622–1638 Son
Min Sani 1638 Son reigned 28 days
Narapati 1638–1645 Great-grandson of Thasata
Thado 1645–1652 Nephew
Sanda Thudhamma 1652–1684 Son
Thiri Thuriya 1684–1685 Son
Wara Dhammaraza 1685–1692 Brother
Muni Thuddhammaraza 1692–1694 Brother
Sanda Thuriya I 1694–1696 Brother
Nawrahta Zaw 1696 Son reigned 15 days
Mayokpiya 1696–1697 Usurper
Kalamandat 1697–1698 Usurper
Naradipati I 1698–1700 Son of Sanda Thuriya
Sanda Wimala I 1700–1706 Grandson of Thado
Sanda Thuriya II 1706–1710 Grandson of Sanda Thudhamma
Sanda Wizaya 1710–1731 Usurper
Sanda Thuriya III 1731–1734 Son-in-law
Naradipati II 1734–1735 Son
Narapawara 1735–1737 Usurper
Sanda Wizaya 1737 Cousin reigned 8 months
Madarit 1737–1742 Brother
Nara Apaya 1742–1761 Uncle
Thirithu 1761 Son reigned 3 months
Sanda Parama 1761–1764 Brother
Apaya 1764–1773 Brother-in-law
Sanda Thumana 1773–1777 Brother-in-law
Sanda Wimala II 1777 Usurper Reigned 40 days
Sanda Thaditha 1777–1782 Lord of Ramree
Thamada 1782–1785

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Charney, Michael W. (1999). ‘Where Jambudipa and Islamdom Converged: Religious Change and the Emergence of Buddhist Communalism in Early Modern Arakan, 15th-19th Centuries.’ PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan.
  • Charney, Michael W. (1993). ‘Arakan, Min Yazagyi, and the Portuguese: The Relationship Between the Growth of Arakanese Imperial Power and Portuguese Mercenaries on the Fringe of Mainland Southeast Asia 1517-1617.’ Masters dissertation, Ohio University.
  • Leider, Jacques P. (2004). ‘Le Royaume d’Arakan, Birmanie. Son histoire politique entre le début du XVe et la fin du XVIIe siècle,’ Paris, EFEO.
  • Htin Aung, A History of Burma, Cambridge University Press, New York and London, 1967
  • Harvey, G. E., History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824, Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., London, 1925
  • Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P., History of Burma, London, 2nd edition, 1967

credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Arakanese_monarchs

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Kings of Burma


ARAKAN (ရခိုင္)
WETHALI (ေ၀သာလီ)
Mahataingsandra 788-810
Thuriyataingsandra .810-830
Maulataingsandra 830-849
Paulataingsandra 849-875
Kalataingsandra 875-884
Dulataingsandra 884-903
Thiritaingsandra 903-935
Thingghathataingsandra 935-951
Tsulataingsandra 951-957
Amyathu 957-964
Paiphyu 964-994
Ngamengngatum 994-1018
First PINGTSA
Khettarheng 1018-1028
Tsandatheng 1028-1039
Mengrengphyu 1039-1049
Nagathuriya 1049-1052
Thuriyaradza 1052-1054
Punnaka 1054-1058
Mengphyugyi 1058-1060
Tsithabeng 1060-1061
Mengnanthu 1061-1066
Menglade 1066-1072
Mengkula 1072-1075
Mengbhilu 1075-1078
Thengkhaya 1078-1092
Mengthan 1092-1100
Mengpadi 1100-1103
PARIN
Letyamengnan 1103-1109
Thihaba 1109-1110
Radzagyi 1110-1112
Thakiwenggyi 1112-1115
Thakiwengngay 1115-1133
Gauliya 1133-1153
Datharadza 1153-1165
Ananthiri 1165-1167
KHYIT
Mengphuntsa 1167-1174
Pintsakawa 1174-1176
Gannayubaw 1176-1179
Tsalengkabo 1179-1180
Second PINGTSA
Midzutheng 1180-1191
Ngaranman 1191-1193
Ngapuggan 1193-1195
Ngarakhoing 1195-1198
Ngakyun 1198-1201
Ngatshu 1201-1205
Ngatswaitheng 1205-1206
Mengkounggyi 1206-1207
Mengkhoungngay 1207-1208
Kambhalounggyi 1208-1209
Kambhaloungngay 1209-1210
Letyagyi 1210-1218
Letyangay 1218-1229
Thanabeng 1229-1232
Nganathin 1232-1234
Nganalum 1234-1237
LOUNG-KYET
Hlanmaphyu 1237-1243
Radzathugyi 1243-1246
Tsaulu 1246-1251
Utstsanagyi 1251-1260
Tsaumwungyi 1260-1268
Nankyagyi 1268-1272
Mengbhilu 1272-1276
Tsithabeng 1276-1279
Meng Di 1279-1385
vassal of Ava, 1379-1430
Utstsanangay 1385-1387
Thiwarit 1387-1390
Thintse 1390-1394
Radzathu 1394-1395,
1397-1401
Tsithabeng 1395-1397
Myintsoingkyi 1397
Thinggathu 1401-1403
MYOUK-U
Mengtsaumwun 1404-1406,
1430-1434
Vacant, 1406-1430
Menkhari 1434-1459
Batsauphyu 1459-1482
Daulya 1482-1492
Batsonygo 1492-1494
Ranoung 1494
Tsalenggathu 1494-1501
Menradza 1501-1523
Gadzabadi 1523-1525
Mengtsau-o 1525
Thatsata 1525-1531
Mengbeng 1531-1553
Dik-Kha 1553-1555
Tsau-Lha 1555-1564
Mengtsekya 1564-1571
Mengphaloung 1571-1593
Mengradzagyi 1593-1612
Mengkhamoung 1612-1622
Thirithudhamma 1622-1638
Mengtsani 1638
Thado 1638-1645
Narabadigyi 1645-1652
Tsandathudhamma 1652-1684
Thirithuriya 1684-1685
Wara Dhammaradza 1684-1692
Munithu Dhammaradza 1692-1694
Tsandathuriya Dhammaradza 1694-1696
Naukahtadzau 1696
Mayuppiya 1696-1697
Kalamandat 1697-1698
Naradhibadi 1698-1700
Tsandawimala I 1700-1706
Tsandathuriya 1706-1710,
1731-1734
Tsandawidzaya 1710-1731
Naradhibadi 1734-1735
Narapawararadza 1735-1737
Tsandawidzala 1737
Katya 1737
Madarit 1737-1742
Nara-Apaya 1742-1761
Thirithu 1761
Paramaradza 1761-1764
Maharadza 1764-1773
Thumana 1773-1777
Tsandawimala II 1777
Thamitha-Dhammayit 1777-1782
Thamada 1782-1784
to Burma, 1784

The Burmese speak a Sino-Tibean language, more closely related to Tibetan and Karen than to Chinese itself. But, despite frequent political and military involvement with China, Burma has always been a sub-Indian culture, with Theravadin Buddhist religion and a Sanskrit based alphabet. The interesting circular form of Burmese letters is a consequence of the original writing materials. These were strips of leaves that would split easily if straight lines were made along the grain. Circular forms avoid or minimize this danger.

The earliest civilization in Burma was on the coast of Arakan. This was occasionally subject to the strong Burmese states in the Irrawaddy valley and eventually was aborbed.

The first great central Burmese state was that of Pagan. This eventually came to an end with invasion by the Mongols and the influx of the Shan people.

(ပုဂံမင္းဆက္မ်ား)  KINGDOM of PAGAN
Pyinbya (ပ်ဥ္ျပားမင္း) c.900-c.925
Tannet (တံနက္မင္း) c.925-c.950
Nga Khwe (စေလငေခြးမင္း) c.950-c.955
Theinkho (သိန္းခိုမင္း) c.955-c.970
Ngyaungusaw Rahan (ေညာင္ဦးေစာရဟန္းမင္း) c.970-c.995
Kwonsaw Kyung Phyu (ကြမ္းေဆာ္ေၾကာင္ျဖဴမင္း) c.995-c.1014
Kyitso (ၾကည္စိုးမင္း) c.1014-c.1020
Tsukkata (စုကၠေတးမင္း) c.1020-1044
Anawrahta (အေနာ္ရထာမင္း) 1044-1077
Sawlu (ေစာလူးမင္း) 1077-1084
Kyanzittha (က်န္စစ္သားမင္း) 1084-1113
တ႐ုတ္ျပည္ကို သံေစလႊတ္ပါတယ္။ embassy to China, 1106
Alaungsithu (အေလာင္းစည္သူ) 1113-1167
Mengshengtsau (မင္းရွင္ေစာ) 1167
Narathu I (နရသူမင္း) 1167-1170
Narathenkha (နရႆခၤမင္း) 1170-1173
Narapatisithu (နရပတိစည္သူ) 1173-1210
Nantonmya (နားေတာင္းမ်ား) 1210-1234
Kyaswa (ေက်ာ္စြာ) 1234-1250
Uzana (ဥဇနာမင္း) 1250-1254
Narathihapate, (နရသီဟပေတ႔)
“He who ran
from the Chinese”
1254-1287
မြန္ဂိုတာတာမ်ား ပုဂံကို၀င္ေရာက္တိုက္ခိုက္သည္။ Mongols loot Pagan, 1287
Kyawswa (ေက်ာ္စြာ) Mongol Vassal,
1287-1298
Sawahnit (ေစာႏွစ္) 1298-1325
ပင္းယႏွင္႔ပူးေပါင္းသည္။ Combined with Pinya
ပင္းယမင္းဆက္ KINGDOM of PINYA
Athinhkaya (အႆခၤယာ) 1298-c.1312
Yazathinkyan (ရာဇသႀကၤန္) 1298-c.1312
Thihathu (သီဟသူ) 1298-1324
Uzana II (ဥဇနာ) 1324-1343
Ngashishin (ငါးစီးရွင္ေက်ာ္စြာ) 1343-1350
Kyanswange (ေက်ာ္စြာငယ္) 1350-1359
Narathu II (နရသူ) 1359-1364
Uzana Pyaung (ဥဇနာေျပာင္) 1364
အင္း၀မင္းဆက္ KINGDOM of AVA
Thadominbya (သတိုးမင္းဖ်ား) 1364-1368
Nga Nu the Usurper 1368
Minkyiswasawke (မင္းႀကီးစြာေစာ္ကဲ) Chinese Vassal,
1368-1401
Tarabya (တရဖ်ား) 1401
Nga Nauk Han (ငနက္ဟန္) usurper,
1401
Minhkaung I (မင္းေခါင္) 1401-1422
Thihathu (သီဟသူ) 1422-1426
Minhlange (မင္းလွငယ္) 1426
Kalekyetaungnvo 1426-1427
Mohnyinthado 1427-1440
Minrekyansa 1440-1443
Narapati Chinese Vassal,
1443-1469
Thihathura 1469-1481
Minhkaung II 1481-1502
Shwenankyawshin 1502-1527
Thohanbwa the Usurper 1527-1543
Hkonmaing the Shan 1543-1546
Mobye Narapati Shan Vassal,
1546-1552
Sithkyawhtin Shan Vassal,
1552-1555
to Taungu, 1555

After the fall of Pagan and a transitional kingdom, the next great Burmese state was Ava. Ava, however, would never dominate Burma. It was precariously surrounded by the Shan states in the north, Arakan in the west, and Pegu in the south, sometimes advancing, as against Arakan in 1379-1430, sometimes retreating, and sometimes dominated by China.

These lists were largely derived from Bruce R. Gordon’s Regnal Chronologies, with some details added from An Encyclopedia of World History (William L. Langer, Houghton Mifflin, 1952). The Maps are based on the Oxford Atlas of World History (Patrick K. O’Brien, General Editor, 1999, pp.64-65). Good lingustic information is in The Atlas of Languages (Facts On File, 1996, pp.62-64); and a descripiton of the Burmese language and its alphabet is in The World’s Major Languages, edited by Bernard Comrie [Oxford University Press, 1987, pp.834-854].

SHAN
Wareru 1287-1306
Khunlau 1306-1310
Dzau-au 1310-1323
Dzaudzip 1323-1330
Binya-e Lau 1330-1348
Binya-u 1348-1385
Binya-Nwe 1385-1423
Binya Dhamma Radza 1423-1426
Binya Rankit 1426-1446
Binya Waru 1446-1450
Binya Keng 1450-1453
Mhaudau 1453
Shengtsaubu (f) 1453-1460
Dhamma Dzedi 1460-1491
Binya Ran 1491-1526
Takarwutbi 1526-1540
TAUNGU/TOUNGOO
Tabin Shwehti 1531-1550
captures Pengu, 1539; King of Lower Burma, 1542; captures Pagan, 1546; King of all Burma
Thamindwut 1550
Thaminhtau 1550-1551
Bayin Naung 1551-1581
captures Ava, 1555; captures Chiang Mai, 1557; attacks Ayuthya, 1563; captures Ayuthya, 1569
Nandabayin 1581-1599
driven from Siam, 1593; disintegration, 140 years
TAUNGU
Ngyaung Ram Meng 1599-1605
Mahadhammaraja 1605-1628
Mengre Dippa 1628-1629
Thalwun Mengtara 1629-1648
Bengtale 1648-1661
Pyi Meng 1661-1672
Narawara 1672
Thiri Pawara
Mahadhammaraja
1672-1698
Thiri Maha
Thihathura Thudhamma
1698-1714
Thiri Pawara
Mahadhammaraja
Dibati Hsengphyusheng
1714-1733
Mahadhammaraja Dibati 1733-1751
to Konbaung, 1751
SHAN
Buddha Thi Gwe Meng 1740-1746
Binya Dala 1746-1757
KONBAUNG
Alaungpaya 1753-1760
Naundawgyi 1760-1763
Hsinbyushin 1763-1776
Chinese invasion, 1765-1769; Ayuthya destroyed, 1767
Singu Min 1776-1781
Maung Maung 1781
Bodawdaya 1781-1819
captures Arakan, 1784; invasion of Siam defeated, 1785; Peace with Siam, acquisition of Tenasserim coast, 1793
Bagyidaw 1819-1837
First Burmese War, 1824-1826, loss of Assam, Arakan, & Tenasserim to Britain, 1826
Tharrawaddy 1837-1846
Pagin Min 1846-1852
Mindon Min 1853-1878
Second Burmese War, 1852-1853, Lower Burma to Britain, 1853; Manalay becomes capital, 1857
Thibaw 1878-1885,
d.1916
Third Burmese War, 1885, Burma annexed by Britain,
1886-1942, 1945-1948; Japanese occupation, 1942-1945; Republic, 1948-present

The Shan were among the Thai-Lao people who streamed into Southeast Asia in the 13th century, perhaps driven out of Yunnan by the Mongols. Shan states destablize Burma, and their aggressiveness may be responsible for the newly aggressive state of Taungu that creates a bit of a Burmese Empire in the 16th century.

The conquest by Taungu of the Thai Kingdoms, Chiang Mai and Ayuthya, is one of the high points of Burmese history. The triumph, especially over Siam, however, is brief.

The revival of a unified Burmese state under Konbaung led to some triumphs, as for a while over Siam again, and then to a series of setbacks. Defeated in Siam, the Burmese then had to face an enemy even more formidable than China — the British in India.

All the British ever wanted to do was trade and make money, but ideas of private property and free trade were more than a little foreign to Burmese sovereigns. Hassling British subjects in the 19th century, however, brings down the wrath of Britain, with all its modern military superiority.

Three wars with Britain led to the dismemberment and then annexation of Burma. And as the century progressed, the British became increasingly more interested in conquest than just in trade. The First Burmese War meant in 1826 the loss of Assam, still today part of India, Arakan, only recently secured, and Tenasserim, only more recently secured. These territories were not exactly integral to the Burmese state; but the Second Burmese War led to the annexation of Lower Burma, with Rangoon and Pengu, in 1853. The British general Sir Harry Prendergast finally entered Mandalay in 1885, and the whole country was annexed the following year.

In World War II, Burma ended up conquered and occupied by a power that previously had had nothing to do with Burmese history — Japan. The Japanese may have done this to cut off supplies to China over the famous “Burma Road.” It also put them on the border of India, where enemies of Britain, from Napoleon to Hitler, had always dreamed of being. To supply their position in Burma, the Japanese employed prisoners-of-war to built a railroad from Thailand. Many, many died in this project, immortalized in the movie, Bridge on the River Kwai [1957]. But by the time the Japanese got around to invading India in 1944, they were well past their prime; and the army that was sent, and defeated, didn’t even have enough supplies to make a regular retreat. The British reconquest of Burma was then set in motion. Directing that operation was Louis Mountbatten, who was subsequently made Earl Mountbatten of Burma. Mountbatten then served as the last Viceroy of India. Only a “life peerage,” there are no subsequent Earls of Burma running around.

It was no trouble for the Japanese to find anti-British Burmese to set up a puppet government, which dutifully declared war on the Allies in 1943. After the War, the bitter feelings were reflected in the fact that independent Burma did not choose to join the British Commonwealth. Since then, Burma has suffered from its isolationist tendencies, especially after a military coup in 1962 and one-party socialist state was decreed in 1974. The present military government, with General Shaw Maung as President since 1988, has gained the reputation of one of the worst human rights abusers in the world, setting aside democratic election results in 1990. In an attempt to stir up fascist-style nationalism, the government changed the name of the country in 1991 to something more “authentic,” Myanmar, but this has done little, of course, to ease the sting of dictatorship.

The living symbol of Burmese resistance to their government is Nobel Peace Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi. A remarkable political lighning rod for so small a woman, Aung San has been arrested and kept under house arrest by the Burmese government more than once. Since she had a British husband (who died in 1999), the government rather wished she would just leave the country and stay away, but for some reason it has not simply expelled her. After her Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, Aung San has become such an interational figure that the government has apparently become shy of going too far with her. She is currently free to move around the country and speak to crowds, though the government usually harrasses and threatens these gatherings. This is progress. Aung San would get no such tolerance in Cuba, North Korea, Iraq, or Iran.

Copyright (c) 2000, 2003 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved

Credit :

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The kingdom of Waithali (Rakhine: Wai-tha-li) was the successor to Dhanyawady from the 4th century AD.

The founder of Vesali city, King Dvan Chandra carved Vesali Paragri Buddha-image in 327 A.D and set a dedicatory inscription in Pali verse

“ye dhamma hetuppabuava / Tathagato aha / tesan ca yo niyodho / evamvadi Mahasamano.”

That Buddha-image is carved out by a single block and the earliest image of Vesali.

The meaning of Ye Dhamma verse is as follow.
“Of these dhammas which arise from causes / The Tathagata has declared causes / Lord Buddha preached about the causes / And the effects gained by the causes / And that which is the ceasing of them, Nirawda Thitesa / This the great ascetic declares.”

The verse, which is considered as the essence of Theravada spirit, bears testimony to the fact that Buddhism flourished to an utmost degree in Vesali. The relationship of Vesali with foreign countries especially Ceylon would be established for Buddhism.

The stone inscriptions are of Sanskrit, Pali, Rakhine, Pru and Arabic languages. Anandacandra Inscriptions date back to 729 A.D. originally from Vesali now preserved at Shitethaung indicates adequate evidence for the earliest foundation of Buddhism. Dr. E. H. Johnston’s analysis reveals a list of kings which he considered reliable beginning from Candra dynasty. The western face inscription has 72 lines of text recorded in 51 verses describing the Anandacandra’s ancestral rulers. Each face recorded the name and ruling period of each king who were believed to have ruled over the land before Anandacandra. Archaeology has shown that the establishment of so many stone pagodas and inscriptions which have been totally neglected for centuries in different part of Arakan speak of popular favoured by Buddhism.

Arakan reached the zenith of its power in the Bay of Bengal during the Waithali (Vesali), Lemro and Mrauk U periods, but the country steadily declined from the seventeenth century onwards. Chittagong, which was part of Arakan, was invaded and occupied by the Mughal Empire in 1666. Internal instability and dethroning of kings was very common. The Portuguese, during the era of their greatness in Asia, gained a temporary establishment in Arakan.

On the last day of 1784, the Arakan was finally cccupied by the Burmese. The famous Mahamuni Buddha image was taken as a war trophy by Crown Prince Thado Minsaw to Amarapura. (The image was relocated to Mandalay by King Mindon in 1853 when he relocated the capital to Mandalay). The Burmese, after conquering Arakan, came directly into contact with British interests in east India. Burmese seizures of Arakan’s neighbouring states of Assam and Manipur and the assault on Shinmaphyu Isle, which was a British outpost in Bengal, were the instigating causes of the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824 to 26). Under the Treaty of Yandabo (1826), Burma ceded Arakan and Tenasserim to British India. Arakan was thus one of the first Burmese territories to be ceded to the British. The British made Akyab capital of Arakan, and retained the traditional divisions of the country into the districts of Akyab, Kyaukpyu and Sandoway (Ramree) with a district officer in charge of each.

With independence and the formation of the Union of Burma in 1948, the three districts became Arakan Division, on equal footing with the majority Burmese administrative divisions.

From the 1950s, there was a growing movement for restoration of Rakhine independence. In part to appease this sentiment, in 1974, the Burmese government of Ne Win constituted Rakhine State from Arakan Division giving at least nominal acknowledgment of the majority Rakhine ethnic group, the Arakanese nationalities.

Historical periods:

Dhannyawadi – BC. 3325 – AD. 326
The First Dhannyawadi
BC. 3325 – 1483 King Marayu
The Second Dhannyawadi
BC. 1483 – 580 King Kanrazagree
The Third Dhannyawadi
BC. 580 – AD. 326 King Chandra Suriya
Gautama Buddha, Himself, visited Dhannyawadi and the Great Image of Mahamuni was casted, and Buddhism began professed in Arakan. Currency system by coinage is said introduced in Arakan economy.

Vesali – Lemro – AD. 327 – 1430
Vesali Kyauk Hlayga
AD. 327 – 794 King Dvan Chandra
Sambawak
AD. 794- 818 Prince Nga Tong Mong (Saw Shwe Lu)
Lemro
AD. 818 -1430 King Nga Tone Mun
This period was the highest civilization in the Bay and highly prosperous with busy international trade with the west. Pyinsa, Purain, Taung Ngu and Narinsara, Laungkrat cities were flourished and gold and silver coinage was used in trade relation in Arakan in this period.

Golden Mrauk-U – 1430 – 1784
First Golden Mrauk-U
1430 – 1530 King Mun Saw Mwan
Second Golden Mrauk-U
1530 – 1638 Solidified by King Mun Bun (Mun Ba Gri)
Arakan reached at the zenith of the national unity and of the time of most powerful in the Bay in this period.
Third Golden Mrauk-U Period
1638 – 1784 King Mahathamada Raza

Read More:

Historical periods:


Dhannyawadi – BC. 3325 – AD. 326
The First Dhannyawadi
BC. 3325 – 1483 King Marayu
The Second Dhannyawadi
BC. 1483 – 580 King Kanrazagree
The Third Dhannyawadi
BC. 580 – AD. 326 King Chandra Suriya
Gautama Buddha, Himself, visited Dhannyawadi and the Great Image of Mahamuni was casted, and Buddhism began professed in Arakan. Currency system by coinage is said introduced in Arakan economy.

Vesali – Lemro – AD. 327 – 1430
Vesali Kyauk Hlayga
AD. 327 – 794 King Dvan Chandra
Sambawak
AD. 794- 818 Prince Nga Tong Mong (Saw Shwe Lu)
Lemro
AD. 818 -1430 King Nga Tone Mun
This period was the highest civilization in the Bay and highly prosperous with busy international trade with the west. Pyinsa, Purain, Taung Ngu and Narinsara, Laungkrat cities were flourished and gold and silver coinage was used in trade relation in Arakan in this period.

 

Golden Mrauk-U – 1430 – 1784
First Golden Mrauk-U
1430 – 1530 King Mun Saw Mwan
Second Golden Mrauk-U
1530 – 1638 Solidified by King Mun Bun (Mun Ba Gri)
Arakan reached at the zenith of the national unity and of the time of most powerful in the Bay in this period.
Third Golden Mrauk-U Period
1638 – 1784 King Mahathamada Raza

The oldest artefact, stone image of Fat Monk inscribed “Saccakaparibajaka Jina” in Brahmi inscription comes to the date of first century A.

 

 

Legendary Kingdoms

3325 BC-1483 BC – 1st Danyawaddy Dynasty– According to ancient Arakanese chronicles, the first Arakanese kings were Indo-Aryans from the Ganges Valley. The first of these kings is believed to have been King Marayu, who was said to have founded the first Dhanyawaddy City in 3325 BC.1483 BC-580 BC – 2nd Danyawaddy Dynasty – In 1483 BC, King Kan Raza Gri was said to have founded the second Dhanyawaddy City, which served as the royal capital until 580 BC.

Tagaung Kingdom – 850 BC – 600 BC – Tagaung is said be the very first capital of Burma according to the adage Myanmar asa Tagaung ga (Myanmar starts from Tagaung), and it was the ancient capital of the Pyu, who were the forerunners of the Burmese people.

BC 603-1050 AD Thuwunna Bonmi (Ramanya) Thaton City State The first identifiable civilization in what later became Burma is that of the Mon. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 300 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi, was founded around theport ofThaton in about 300 BC, located in southernMyanmar near Beelin, at the foot ofMountKaylartha.

580 BC-326 AD – 3rd Danyawaddy Dynasty – The third Dhanyawaddy City, the ruins of which survive to this day, dates to the period between 580 BC-326 AD, making it the center one of Southeast Asia’s earliest civilizations.

483 BC – 95 AD – Prome Dynasty – The central kingdoms of Prome and Toungoo appear to have been, respectively, merely a very early dynasty and a comparatively recent off shoot from the kingdom of Burma, into which they were subsequently again merged. The Prome dynasty was established at Thare Kettara by Maha Thambawa, in 483 BC, and terminated with the death of Thu Pinya in 95 AD, shortly after which a new dynasty was founded at Pagan, in 108 AD, by Thamakdarit.

 

187-1044 – Pyu Kingdom – Pyu city states were small and sparsely populous, they often faced the aggression and invasion of the peoples of the neighboring areas. The technique of rice planting had already been well established within the Pyu era of old Myanmar.AD 327-957 – Chandra Dynasty – A state, or collection of states, was established as early as the fourth century AD in what is now Ardan State (formerly ArakanState), facing the Bay of Bengal. The Ardanese were related to the Burmans of Upper Burma and had, because of their location on the cost, close maritime relation withIndia.573-781 – Mon Kingdom – By the ninth century AD the nations had consolidated themselves – the Burmans in the greater part of what is now Upper Burma; the Mon on the Lower Irrawaddy, the Sittang, and the Salween; while the Khmer were at the height of their power, with magnificent towns and temples in Cambodia. A number of Mon cities flourished, among them Thuwannabhumi (Suvannabhumi, “Land ofGold”) of theMons [825-1043].976-1404 – Arakan State – A state, or collection of states, was established as early as the fourth century AD in what is now Ardan State (formerly Arakan State), facing the Bay of Bengal. The Ardanese were related to the Burmans of Upper Burma and had, because of their location on the cost, close maritime relation withIndia. 
Pagan [Bagan] / First Empire – 1044-1287
By 849, the Myanmar people had founded a powerful kingdom centered on the city of Bagan and filled the void left by the Pyu.Myanmar civilization achieved a high level of development at Bagan from the middle of the 11th century to the end of the 13th century. According to the chronicles, Bagan was founded in AD 107 by the Thamoddarit and ruled by a line of 55 kings, but written evidences are available only from Anawrahta (1044-1077) onwards. The kingdom grew in relative isolation until the reign of King Anawrahta (1044-77) who successfully unified all ofMyanmar by defeating the Mon city ofThaton in 1057. Anawrahta, the first unifier ofMyanmar, established Theravada Buddhism with the help of Buddist Missionary Shin Arahan and laid the foundation of Bagan’s greatness. A thriving economy and the inspiration of Buddhism resulted in the great monuments of Shwezigon, Ananda, Thatbinnyu, Gawdapalin and a host of other pagodas, several of them decorated with mural paintings on religious themes.
Period of Division and Shan Domination – 1287-1365 – After the collapse of Bagan, Myanmar was divided once again. The decline of Pagan, brought about by a Mongol invasion in 1287, was followed by political confusion.1289-1553 – Waytharlee Kingdom – Located in westernMyanmar about 6 miles north of Myauk Oo.1309-1360 – Pinya Dynasty – Located in centralMyanmar.1315-1364 – Sagaing Dynasty – Located in upperMyanmar in Sagaing.1365-1552 Ava (Inwa) Kingdom – – The decline of Pagan was followed by political confusion and the emergence of two kingdoms: Ava / Inwa, and Hanthawady (Bago / Pegu). In 1364 a new Burmese dynasty was founded by Thado Minbya, who dethroned the contemporaneous rulers at Panya and Sagaing, and established his capital at Ava. Nineteen kings ruled in Inwa from 1365 to 1552. The kingdom lacked easily defendable borders, however, and was overrun by the Shan of the Toungoo dynasty.

 

1552-1599 – Hanthawady Kingdom / Second Empire
TheKingdom ofHanthawady (Bago) was founded by Banya U in 1369. Eleven kings ruled in Hanthawady from 1369 to 1538.Myanmar entered a new phase of greatness when the kings of Toungoo moved their capital from Toungoo to Bago and three of its kings ruled there from 1538 to 1599. The Second Myanmar Empire with its capital in Bago (Pegu) was founded in mid-16th century by King Bayinnaung. Bayintnaung (1552-1581), known also as Lord of the White Elephants and Conqueror of the Ten Directions, reunited the kingdom, created the vast Hanthawady Empire and rebuilt Bago on a magnificent scale. A network of three overland routes fromYunnan westward toBengal existed for shipping bullion between 1200 and 1500 AD. The route was inland involving rivers and roads. One of them followed theShweliRiver, crossing the Irrawaddy at Tagaung, followed theChindwinRiver north and crossed via the Imphal pass to Manipur.
1431-1783 – Arakan State – In 1785, the Rakhine / Arakankingdom whose capital was Mrauk-U, founded by Minsawmun (1430-1433) in 1430, and which had a line of 49 kings reigning from 1430 to 1785, was made part of the Konbaung kingdom.1486-1550 – TaungNgoo / Taungoo Dynasty – Survivors of the destruction of Innwa eventually established a new kingdom centered on Taungoo in centralMyanmar in 1531 led by Tabinshwehti (reigned 1531-50), who once again unified much ofMyanmar.1599-1752 – Nyaung Yan Dynasty – From 1599, when the Nyaung Yan Min, a younger son of Bayin Naung, ascended the throne of the “king of kings,” the dynasty reigned at Ava, and at Pegu, holding sway throughout the whole of the present province, with the exception of Arakan. Following the break-up of the Hanthawady Empire, Nungyan (1598-1606) established a newMyanmar kingdom, and ten kings reigned in Inwa from 1598 to 1752. The most famous of the Inwa kings, Thalun (1629-1648) built the Kaunghmudaw Pagoda near Sagaing. A rebellion which started in Pago led to the downfall of the kingdom in 1752.
1752-1878 – Konbaung Kingdom / Third Empire
The Third and last Myanmar Empire was founded by King Alaungpaya in 1752. A popularMyanmar leader named Alaungpaya drove the Bago forces out of northernMyanmar by 1753, and by 1759 he had once again conquered Bago and southernMyanmar while also regaining control of Manipur. He established his capital atYangon. In the tradition of Anawrahta and Bayintnaung, Alaungpaya (1752-1760) reunitedMyanmar and established the lastMyanmar dynasty of 11 kings who ruled from 1752 to 1885. The kingdom had a number of capitals, including Shwebo, Inwa and Amarapura, with the last capital,Mandalay, being founded by Mindon (1852-1878) in 1859.Myanmar fought three wars against the British and lost Rakhine and Taninthayi in 1826,Lower Myanmar in 1852 and its independence on 1 January 1886.
British Colonial Rule – 1885-1948 – The British started to rule parts ofMyanmar in 1826 and the whole country in 1886. In the 19th century, during the peak period of colonialism,Myanmar was annexed in three stages by the British after three Anglo-Myanmar Wars in 1825, 1852 and 1885.Myanmar was first placed under a Chief Commissioner, then a Lieutenant Governor in 1897,and then a Governor in 1923, and ruled as part ofBritish India until separation in 1937. InMyanmar itself, the Shan States, the Kayah (Karenni) States and the hill areas were administered separately from Myanmar Proper. An appointed advisory Council was established in 1897, a partially elected legislative Council in 1923,and a bicameral legislature with an elected House of Representatives in 1937. Under British rule, an economic transformation took place with the commercial production of rice and the development ofMyanmar as a major rice exporting country. British firms such as the Burmah Oil Company, Steel Brothers, and the Bombay Burmah Trading Company, dominated the economy. During the Second World War,Myanmar was occupied by the Japanese for nearly three years until the Allied Forces’ reoccupation in 1945.
Independent Period – 1948-present – On 12 February 1947 Bogyoke Aung San concluded the historic Pinlone Agreement with Shan, Kachin and Chin leaders, which laid the foundations for the establishment of a united independent Myanmar. Although Bogyoke Aung San and other national leaders were assassinated on 19 July 1947,Myanmar regained independence on 4 January 1948.

 

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1885/47122

Title:  Ancient Arakan
Author(s): Gutman, Pamela
Affiliation: The Australian National University
Department of Asian Civilisations
Keywords: Arakan
Burma
eastern India
Arakanese culture
inscriptions
Sanskrit
Pali
Pyu
copper-plate
votive inscriptions
coinage
kingship
Buddhist and Hindu images
monuments
cultural history
art and architecture
east Bengal
Date created: 1976-08
Year accepted: 1976
Description: The early history of Arakan has been generally considered to be that of a province of eastern India, and hence its study has been neglected by both Indian and Southeast Asian historians. This dissertation seeks to examine the dynamics of the history from the beginnings of urbanization until the rise of the Burmese empire which subsequently dominated Arakanese culture. The first chapter deals with the geographical and ethnolinguistic background to the development of the earliest cities. In the second, all the inscriptions of the period, in Sanskrit, Pali and Pyu are catalogued and edited. The inscriptions issued by the kings establish a chronology for the period and illustrate the nature of the cult surrounding the institution of kingship, while copper-plate and votive inscriptions elucidate the nature of state organisation and the popular religion. Chapter Three deals with the coinage which emerged following the development of a centralised economy, and discusses the impetus for this and the role of the king on whom the prosperity of the country depended. A comparison with similar coin types in Southeast Asia is made and the catalogue includes all the coins yet discovered. The sites of the most important monuments are discussed in Chapter Four, which catalogues all the architectural and sculptural remains. A comparative analysis of the Buddhist and Hindu images and of the minor arts reveals, to a greater extent that do the inscriptions, the nature of contact with India and the rest of Southeast Asia. The conclusion deals with the political and cultural history which thus emerges, examining in detail the rationale behind the development of the concept of divine kingship in Arakan.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1885/47122
http://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/47122
Appears in Collections: ANU Digital Theses

 

One comment on “ေရွးရခုိင္၊ဗမာမင္းညီမင္းဆက္မ်ားႏွင္႔ခုသကၠရာဇ္မ်ား

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