A Short Historical Background of Arakan..wikipedia.org/news/2006/11/07/kaladanpress-nasaka-extorts-money-for-gossiping/ Tue 7 Nov 2006 (6) Aliran Kesedaran Negara. The reason for such a trend is not due to people’s choice but of the military illegally occupying power. 2007. but lately managed to receive the award.. 248 Dr. co-authored a xenophobic book called Influx Viruses.” (3) It appears that the influx of refugees from Burma is not a new phenomenon.. Not surprisingly. the supposed enemy within.. Rohingya refugees—a problem Bangladesh faces due to problems in Arakan. I will come tomorrow if Mabud is free Faroque: Why don’t you all come to my house tomorrow to eat? Mabud: That is ok… it was necessary to document Nemeto’s work. But.html (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) CHAPTER 10 THE STORY OF ROHINGYAMA (Adapted from Abid Bahar’s Rohingya Heritage and Refugee Life Series) Introduction and Hints It is true. The story goes like this: The frogs thought they “should have a king and a proper constitution. there were ten kings during this time.. For now. 3) Restriction of movement is a major constraint on decent livelihoods for Muslims. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. There.. the rape occurred in the homes of the victims with children and relatives left to watch.. according to Islamic doctrine. the Muslim migrants were the original Rohingya inhabitants of Arakan returning to their ancestral homes. two-thirds of which today are inhabited by minorities.wikipedia. “The Plight of Burma’s Stateless. among many other things.” Aye Chan says. Sandway. 1942. he refused the opportunity to offer salat within the walls of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for fear that some ignorant Muslims after him might claim the church and convert it into a mosque because he had once prayed there.. Assalamu Alikum Aunty! Amena: Wassalam (says quietly and covers her head with scarf.. “Arakan’s territorial expansion in the late 16th century came at the price of a large buffer zone that was waste land: the region north of Chittagong up to the Feni River in the Noakhali River. Wiesbaden Moshe Yoger. so it will be a problem….. Endnotes (1) (2) Indigenous Australians. the authors of the book “Influx Viruses. . in the modern times. sustained trickle of low visibility. 2004.000 Rohingyas now live in all over the world. it is important that further research should be done to find out the historic truth behind these similarities in language between the two racially different groups. which shows his racial favoritism to the Burmese settlers but remains xenophobic in accounting the Rohingyas issues. Rohingyas have been taking shelter in Southern Chittagong for sometime. In Krstic it was found that even though only Muslim men in one town were targeted.. but rather one that has come to be 36 Dr. the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms..” (13) Endnotes (1) G. lobbying foreign governments to accept more people. I will first find a girl for Mabud then for you. 2005. Shwe Lu Maung.” The research findings will recommend for Muslims of South East Asia to learn to be both competitive.. Altaf: I left Arakan in 1978. Certain chapters of the present book began as occasional papers published online and still others originated in papers I presented in international conferences in Kualalampur.org/background_on_burma. 2007. both of the proto-historians and many of their xenophobic followers live outside Arakan and enjoy the flavours of Western democracy. and we are Burmese people. as they are hoarded by the givers and recipients alike as insurance. Anawrahta. They are poor and mostly uneducated.. Rohingyas. said) Siddiq. the monk who is a big democracy movement leader in abroad but supports Rohingya extermination from Arakan. (24) Ralph Fitch mentions it as the “kingdom of Recon and Mogen as early as in 1585: An Account of Pegu in 1586-1587.. Denmark-Norway Rohingya Community in Norway (RCN). the trees of mangoes and other fruits that we planted with utmost care and affection. who are largely stateless and unemployed. (14) Buchanan. primarily due to Rohingya’s racial differences with the Burmans. the 1942 Japanese occupation and the race riot was the last straw to break the camel’s back.” The present research identified the xenophobic elites to style themselves as the “Rakhine gentlemen” the guardians of Arakan.” or what the Burmese military calls its “way to disciplined democracy.ca/ WhatIsGenocide_en. a brother. why is it necessary for Aye Chan to use this type of anti-Rohingya argument in the first place? 68 Dr….. the proto-Chittagonian was the language of the Chandra kingdom also known as Arakkha desa. Burmese practice of oppression was such that “To break the spirit of the people. in this trend of adopting new names. p.D. d. led by Dr.. Faroque: Don’t put down Kirakini like that. it was the rise of Hindu fundamentalism that led to the destruction and massacre of Buddhists in India and in Afghanistan. .. mapping a field of historical and Cultural research.com. Later in the same year. some of which were led by the monks themselves. (6)” The other xenophobes are: Moe Kyaw Tun. theamericanmuslim. “We never heard of the name Rohingya. slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. we see there are still many more unexplored issues remained to be resolved. (10) Francis Buchanan. 1954 at 8:00 p. All that has happened in this very confused “Burmese way to democracy. and in other foreign countries. m. Later on we were admitted in to the refugee camp. Chattagramer Ittihas Prosongo. It is said that ships facing storm from southern part of Indian coasts. Muslim leaders officially took the already existing name “Rohingya” for their suffering community.. you as parents might end up in jail and in extreme cases. Abid Bahar “Most of the estimated 900. 1997. Canada is a multicultural society. She was a disciplinarian.. on February 26.. A study on the themes of Buddhist-Muslim dynamics and the uses and abuses of religious themes in contemporary Burmese politics is likely to shed some useful light on this important issue.. Burma. such development in Germany—led to the Holocaust. August 09. the Mons and in Arakan the Rohingyas. The author is with Burma’s Prime Minister in exile Dr. the Rakhines (Mogh) that fled from Arakan to Chittagong (of present Bangladesh) in 1784.. Not all the Rakines are bad people. VI. and Cox’s Bazar. They know the difference between democracy-lovers and the reactionaries. 1992. what is more probable is that in Arakan Chandra and Arab/Persian Muslim intermixture led to the Rohingyas and the Chandra Buddhist synthesis led to the Moghs (Rakhines).. wao-global-team@yahoogroups. Burma continues to have anti-Rohingya xenophobic military government. Aye Chan in his article. the great Burma). “our brothers came.”[Qur’an 16:36](12) It is true.. in 1937 Burma was separated from India and the Arakani Muslims’ were seen as “foreigners.. Aye Kyaw demonstrates the Burma he loves is a nondemocratic. 2005. The way I see myself. … from 1962-2007 against he military’s actions we have been a disorganized community.. CHAPTER 13 BURMA’S ANTI-ROHINGYA XENOPHOBES Section 1: Varieties of Burmese Military’s Civilian Collaborators and the Genocide in Burma It is becoming increasingly clear that Burma is developing underdevelopment both intellectually and economically. and supplemented. the xenophobic works identify the Rohingyas as the Indian migrants to Burma during the British period.. only then will we be able to connect the dots and discern the emerging face of genocide that has underlined Burmese internal policy for so long. . the Muslim minority of Burma historically has become an ethnic group.” 2004 Refugee International. She had a bullet in her head. But we need more. Never forget that.abovinc. Chan cites the number of litigation as an example. in Japan and in Bangladesh and from localities and in Arakan. “Ban on Marriages..mizzimab urmese. Refugees continue to cross international borders exacerbating an already BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 21 grave humanitarian crisis. with a remark “to make war is improper. the Burmese military has not hesitated to shoot at departing refugees. identified in British history) took their official name Rakhine during the 40’s was recorded in history (not in Aye Kwaw’s proto-history) to have entered Arakan with Theravada Buddhism in the 10th century. (41) It appears that Rohingya problem in Arakan is a matter of unrestrained racial intolerance.” The Arakan information website.php?option=com_content&task =view&id=18&Itemid=1 APPENDIX 11 REPORT OF CONTINUED GENOCIDE IN ARAKAN: WHO WILL STOP AND WHEN? Kaladan News April 9.” On the side bar.A. Sufi meditation tradition. Persians. “ethnic and ethnonyms were not primordial.000. 49:13) It is true. Lemkin was describing “a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups. and help the military to exterminate them.. under the supervision of ALD exile leader U THA NU. We sent messengers (rasul) before you: there are some of them that We have mentioned to you and there are others whom We have not mentioned to you . who have long settled in Arakan. however.com/ APPENDIX 8 UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS Oral intervention by Anti-Slavery International delivered on 7 April 2003 Fifty-ninth session 17th March-25th April 2003 Item 10—Economic. who support the Rohingya genocide. In order to gain the ultranationalist support.. http:// www. So from very early on. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 89 Another mystery that supports this hypothesis is the Chakma legend.. IL 60610 312/925-4191 www. August 09.. and every person with non native American root should be thrown out of America. how are you feeling? I couldn’t arrive sooner. forced labor. We can not do it alone.. based on the above. these are some issues on the historicity of Arakanese ethnonyms that has so far remained neglected. in Bangladesh.(3) These activities were taking place mostly in northern Chittagong.. It could simply be his conclusion that Muslims were illiterates.org/obl/reg. There are Burmese democracy movement leaders like Aung Tin and Tin Maung Htoo in Toronto and Ottawa are good Burmese people working with the Canadian government for bringing democracy in Burma.. Abid Bahar (10) Swapna Bhattacharya (Chakraborti). being illiterate agriculturalists in the rural areas.. to escape Mogh capture. In Burma.) Michael Charney explained ethnic and ethnonyms.” These increases in xenophobic writing propaganda have made Rohingyas strangers in the land of their birth.. 2004 reports that Rohingyas “ . Oh man. A peaceful family makes a peaceful community. His Holiness said both Buddhism & Islam are based on Logic and Reason . is . Besides. Chakmas as the ancient Mon settlers of Arakan must have been Buddhists for a long time.. In Shwe Lu Maung (Shahnawaz Khan)’s The Price of Silence. Portuguage eventually combined together formed the Chandra-Rohingya dialect in Arakan and in a similar trend developed in Chittagong called Chittagonian dialect with their slight variations spoken by the Chakmas. They walked for two more days. Some of our most unsophisticated and arrogant people have this type of mentality. The apparent pin drop silence was suddenly shattered 136 Dr. There was no Mogh Rakine kingdom in Arakan yet. Aye Chan’s portrayal of the hypothetical Rohingya “enclave” with “influx viruses” in the Mayu frontier seems quite liberal in comparison! Aye Chan says. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. look in the Bukhara Sharif it says about the sin of finding faults in others ‘Abd Allah (RA) reported that the Prophet of Allah (saw) said. A conference organized by the Institute of Asian Studies. thus. Ashin Nayaka as an honorable Buddhist Monk would be expected to preach nonviolence.. pp. Published by Arakanese in United States.164 “I Have Never Heard the Name Rohingya”—Xenophobia or Racism! .”(7) The oppression of the Burmese became clear from what refugees had to say at the time: We will never return to the Arakan country. indeed. Two Arabs named Haji Khalil pir and Mahi Aswar as missionaries took the task of spreading Islam among Buddhist. Collins says… 2007. both Rohingya and Chakma women put on two piece cloths.. it is to create fear among Burmese people that Rohingyas are dangerous people. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 115 The Illegal Muslims in Arakan. It is now clear that the motivation behind Aye Chan’s writing this article and the BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 57 book “Influx Viruses” is to reinforce the military’s position that Rohingyas are the noncitizens of Burma. Anthony Irwin called the whole area a ‘No Man’s Land’ during BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 65 the three years of Japanese occupation (Irwin 1946:27). “A comparative Vocabular of Some of the languages Spoken in the Burma Empire. Mabud: You should rest for a week. are BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 213 brought into the king’s treasury to be melted down. But lately.. it appears that both the Chandra Indian population and the Rakhine Tibeto-Burman racial and cultural trends survived in Arakan until Ne Win’s military coup in 1962 which basing on propaganda began to dispossess the Rohingyas in favour the racially similar Rakhine population upto the declaration of the Rohingyas as the noncitizens of Arakan. slowly losing even our own eye-sight. it is also due to the Rohingyas leaving Arakan for a safer place in Chittagong..com. “if the water be muddy up there. Burma’s problem is not primarily a democratic predicament but an ethnic one.000 Rohingyas took shelter in Chittagong.” in their ways most of these mainstream Arakani groups and the intelligentsia found to be directly or indirectly associated with the Burmese military. it is true. the railway didn’t expand over more than 18 miles from the city of Chittagong to the south. the extremist Rakhines (also historically known as Moghs) have elevated their Theraveda Buddhist faith to the status of a political ideology. holding the national registration cards issued by the Department of National Registration” were not yet Burmese and as the “illegals” in the “enclave” should have left Arakan! But the point is.. if you drive us away we will go and dwell in the jungles of the great mountains. I cannot be the cause of it. In 957 A.” strider@xxxxxxxxxxx Date: Thu.186 Section 2: Rohingya Nation: Contemporary Problems and Making Certain of the Uncertain Future .” which in reality is a blatant case of xenophobia in action.com. C. the original name Rakhing should have been Burmese “Yaking’ not the Rakhaing.) I don’t know yet what kind of country is this. it is called hypocrisy. since 1962. I said to ignore him. it poured out like a torrent punctuated repeatedly by deep sighs. Zamindars were the agents of the British masters. Due to this. The xenophobic Rakhine leaders would respect their made up history. I wasn’t sure. There is also the river Teknaf. due to its mountainous terrain.” http://www. Rohingyas leave Arakan for other countries in the region. Maa.. The displaced Rohingyas in the north seem to be not from Chittagong. There were 40 to 50 armed soldiers on both sides of the stream. it is not the statue of Aung San or U Nu that tower over the city. They aspire to see a radical solution to Arakan’s perceived problems. Did you see so many Rohingya Websites.) (5) Among them Aye Chan. in turn creating complex humanitarian situations in the region. it gives me strength to get to action. 1988 “Genocide is not extreme war or conflict. His main concern was the increase in the Rohingya population during the British period. The Origins of the “Rohingya” and “Rakhine” Ethnonyms It is pertinent to note that both Rohingya and Rakhine are two newly adopted official terms lately used by both respectively for their “identity building and cultural self-defense. say “thank you. Habibullah.html (This paper was written in response to a conference on the Rohigya and the democratic movement of Myanmar.. (7) “Regrettably. It is true. Maungdaw etc. Persians.(21) In 1982 the military rulers passed the Citizenship Act in which it made a povision that Burmese people’ ancestors who came to settle in Burma before 1826 will be considered as “foreigners.. D. (17) These calculative acts seem to have done to bulge the Rohingyas with the Indian migrants. contemporary research shows that Rohingyas are simply Arakanese Muslims and some of the Arakanese Muslims that escaped Burmese invasions settled in southern Chittagong were Rohingyas themselves. the minority Rohingya people. Abid Bahar what was not lost was the identity—“Rohingya. Poet Alaol was put in jail in Arakan for a while but escaped to Chittagong with his famous manuscript” Padmaboti”.” “rupture” due to the colonial rule and asked for a “rebirth” which it in fact already has in the form of a “still birth” that is its present military rule. Contrary to Aye Chan’s. Brithish rule (1826 AD-1942 AD) After the Burmese conquest of Arakan. in this scenario. was the question: “Who is the enemy?” It didn’t take me long to understand that this was not a story reprinted from a medieval comic book about ogres and monsters… With Portuguese help in terror centres like Deang Hills in Chittagong. 68. As we climbed. Rakhaing Women Union (RWU) and some ultra-nationalist Rakhaing academics. after close to half a century of military rule. “And certainly. some Rohingyas from 1942 even began to cross to Bangladesh. Faroque: Where is aunty? Why didn’t you bring her? Mabud: She has a lit of temperature.. B.. Rangoon.kaladanpress. To me.com/index_4. are innocent victims suffering from the debilitating consequences of these government policies. This present work is meant to add to the existing Rohingya literature that began from the times of Alaol to our time when Siddique engineer and others made the written version of Rohingya language. Amena: What do you mean? Mabud: Canada is a democratic country. the latter in a Buddhist environment faced genocide of near extinction.. He went too far against everybody. Arakani Chandra rule in the city of Vassali seems to be no different from the Hindu kingdoms in Thaton of the time (a centre of Indian civilization in lower Burma).narinjara. I am presently working with some Burmese groups and local NGOs on a project to bring the culprits to justice. Aye Kyaw is trying to develop a victim complex among his Burmese Rakhine hoodlums against Rohingyas. in the Mayu Frontier. demanding to the democracy movement leaders the recognition of their citizenship and a negotiated settlement in Arakan and hoping for the safe return of their uprooted people spread around the globe. Iman: Then what happened? Mabud: I lied down in the paddy field.. Anuwar: We came to meet aunty. In doing this.” Martin Smith.”(4) Obviously. Mabud( cries) Maa! Amina: “Don’t cry for me! But promise me. When the radically ethnic nature of this dilemma is properly brought to light. There were hundreds of Moghs and Muslims forced to carry the statue to Burma through the inacessable mountanious pass which led to the death of hundreds as they were on their way to Burma. why the military is so cruel to us? Mabud: The answer is: It is our property they want to grab. Miloon Kothari. Michael Young. Many of them later on died of starvation and sickness. you invite your friends from Maungdaw.A. I would say. these subjugated native people with flat nose. from Tongbazar village. a few volumes purporting to be history but mainly composed of fictitious stories.” Time Asia..”[Qur’an 16:36] 192 Dr.bmnetwork.. Islam. 1958 Rohingya refugges took shelter in East Pakistan. 45.000 Rohingyas to Bangladesh in 1991.i p. it is racism. and will have long-lasting effects for the future of the Rohingya community. mosques had been attacked by Buddhist monks.. etc. 3. From Diang he travelled by land to Ramu. Southeast Bengal (1798): His Journey to Chittagong. the leading Pongyi activist and friend of India who led the entire Pongyi movement during 1920s. . “A considerable portion of Arakanese population was deported by Burmese conquerors to Central Burma. as he claims in his paper. Sample Xenophobic Literature Surveyed: The content of the items surveyed are: (a) (b) (c) (d) A book called “Influx Viruses.. you can make your choice between growth and self annihilation. In this journey. as such.. To bring the culprits to justice. Advocate Nurul Islam (UK). will destroy their lost Arakan’s glory. Their primary objective is to establish a State. see Marwaan Macan-Markar. The Mohamoni statue is the proof of this fact. How the new comers from the Chittagong District set up their village communities in the frontier area. Starting from this time.” 26 Dr.. Ibid Ibid Ibid Francis Buchanan. In consideration of the above. (8) Surprisingly.” Theoretically. 1995. His father was killed and he was captured and taken as a slave to Arakan. In this case. Aye Chan’s “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar) commonly known as “Enclave” was published in the book “Influx viruses” (2005). This past year. how to be kind to it subjects. Accessed on November 10. I have an article by him and his response to the xenophobic Rakhines on the name “Rohingya” is very thoughtful. in Arakan there were small Muslim settlements resulting from Arab and Chandra intermixture. He was an anti-Rohingya police officer. A…. History of the Rohingyas. what will the status of the minorities be? How citizenship will be determined? Is this going to be defined in a way that guarantees both the individual and the collective rights of the ethnic communities or will the Suu Ki experiment be a temporary triumph for the Burman majority and lead to a repetition of the tragedy of military rule? If democracy returns to Burma. . much like the Arab and Persian Muslims mixing with often the lower class dark-skinned Hindus or converting them formed the Bengali people in Bangladesh. in the conference hall in Japan. and the Priests pleased and gather round in golden image All see in her tears.. 1982 The Military government passes the Citizenship Act depriving the Rohingya’s Burmese citizenship. There is also research done on Rohingya language. Khin Maung (NUPA). and the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. They confirmed the murders of his neighbors. in turn.. who will look after the Rohingya community? Maung: masaaallah . refugee” I am no more like any shitty newly arrived Rohingyas doing cleaning jobs. The Portuguese and Arakanese raids of Benga (Bengal) for captives and loot became a conventional practice of the kingdom since the early sixteenth century. this is a typical manifestation of Burmese “democracy. most recently in Japan on Problems of Democratic Development in Burma.” and the creation of the United Nations. the Mon against the Burmans. where an ethnic group is called “taingyintha” which translates as “native of a country. One day he came back from Rangoon and stopped talking to anybody. in the mystery behind the Chakma and the Rohingya’s linguistic Similarities. characterized by xenophobia and oppression against minorities’ caused the eclipse of much of Burma’s people’s history. Leider.html (2) (3) (4) 22 Dr.. Maung: Siddiq. Rohingya historians have written many treatises in which they claim for themselves an indigenous status that is traceable within Arakan State for more than a thousand years.. Myanmar. (3) The increase in the population in the north of Arakan seems to be a result of the internal Rohingya migration from the south. Vincent. But after the 1942 Arakani Muslim genocide most of the Arakani Muslims began to retreat to the north of Arakan called the Mayu frontier area and the Rakhines feeling unsafe began to settle in the north settled in the South.com ISBN: Softcover 978-1-4415-9378-8 All rights reserved.. he thinks the name Rohingya actually derived from Rakhing. . they would drive men. Besides. therefore. people came from different villages to request him not to leave them helpless at the hands of the military brutes. General Wali Khan. Aditya Dewan. His friends came with prepared breakfast from their home. social and cultural rights and led to various discriminatory practices. the tiger will kill you) truly depicts the condition of Chittagong during the hundred years of Mogh rule.. thousands have fled to neighbouring countries. At that time. My father was weeping terribly. Interestingly. But surprisingly some Burmese people.”(10) In the same fashion.. and numerous rivers and their tributaries. Rakhines idea of bilu seems to have come with the Hinayana tradition of Buddhism imported from Sri-Lanka through the Burmese Buddhist missionaries.. and (h) Buthidaung in Akyab District 55 villages. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. there looms the memory of the “golden age” of an Arakanese medieval kingdom. attitude towards the Rohingya can be explained by the fact that most of the member parties (except NUPA) within the ANC are led and advised by anti-Rohingya Rakhaing extremists that can best be described as xenophobic..org/wiki/. 196 Dr..” (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan. Ottama is long dead but I think he has many followers in Arakan who now work with the military government Siddiq: Maa. It is intended to serve both as an educational tool and to serve therapeutic purposes. MUHAMMAD IN PARSI. He is destroying our creative energy and passion. 26) There is no doubt that there is a problem between the two races—Rakhine and the Rohingya—in this meeting point of South Asia and South-East Asia. Siddiq joins them at the diner table) Mabud: Maa. “Xenophobic Burmese Literary works and the problem of Democratic Development in Burma.. My father after prayer would have breakfast.” http://www. He saw the Rohingyas as merely the Bengalis. The local collaborators are the most dangerous forces committing rape. (Rohingya Patriotic Front). London: Frank Cass and Co. . http://www.com) Arakan’s three xenophobic Combos The prominant Arakanese xenophobe Combos that justify the military’s propaganda are Dr. one can say with some certainty that it is their common Arakani Chandra background not the racial origins that holds the key to Chakma and Rohingya history. it is likely that Chakmas were the distant cousins of the Mon tribes of southern Burma lived in Burma before the Tibeto—Burman invasion from the north. (6) It was during this time that Rohingya poet Alaol (original name in Arabic. The increase in xenophobic writings is a sign of Arakan’s past prejudices. constituted by one or several acts enumerated in paragraph 2 of Article 4. people fail to distinguish the difference between belief and knowledge. Then I stopped crying. Kaladan Press “Nasaka extorts money for gossiping.K. separated the young women. 1999.. the chauvinistic writings suggest the extermination of the Rohingyas. the British first began to call Rohingyas as the “Chittagonians” then. and little children were also playing.” Perhaps. approximately 200. were even changed to Sittwe.com/view. Some of them are. 1999.. It is shocking to see Aye Chan’s type of scholar and the connection he had drawn. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. 2005. when and how. no one should question the birth right of citizenship of the Chakmas.) 146 Dr. 2007.. from vandals destroying properties. If the xenophobe lives in EU or in any other country outside Burma it will be easy to bring them to justice.rohingya. a poem. Some of them might have served the king as Bengali. http://www. “Arakan Studies: Challenges and Contested Issues. Then should Muslim leadership educate Burmese people of the historical fact that the stereotypes were only myths. or by any information storage and retrieval system. We rushed to climb on the bird. As we will see below he has given a scholastic face to his xenophobic work.” http://www. that human rights should be protected by the rule of law. Shwe Lu Maung. we see the penetration of Indian Hindu influence in Burma. in keeping with the Mohayana tradition in approximately B. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 175 Are you still confused? If you are still not sure about the name “Rohingya.. Abid Bahar (e) ANC. to avoid repetition. Thus. however. Although he relaxed that during the Kurbani Edd (Hariraya Haji). Shahid bhai: I brought a poem for you which I wrote about my mother after she passed away. laws? Now they have the extra help from the Burmese military. Mabud: As a nation I think we have to help ourselves through whichever way we can help each other. The following day. in his radio speech to the nation declared Rohingya as an indigenous ethnic community of Burma.geocities.. Canada. some others identify the anti-Muslim Hindu fundamentalist influence from India for the problem. Noakhali and Comilla. you are the Rohingyamaa! You pray for our people and I am sure Allah will help us! Amena: I know I pray for our people.. it also should continue to discourage Buddhist religious extremism exported from Arakan through the ANC. the democracy movement leaders have no clear plan.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 30. it is also true that Moghs has been living in Arakan for centuries. Montreal. there is much to be done to promote democracy in Burma. 2006. Compared to the Moghs.. Chakravarti.. yesterday…” (p. triggering genocidal circumstances of unthinkable proportion in Arakan. The latter was first raped by the army and later on was killed.5. the only problem is that eversince huma races left Africa.. Rohingya exodus to be occurred soon. has its independent development.. We will have plenty of time to listen to her.” where if xenophobia is allowed to grow. Each time I left her. It is to note that Mons were the first Mongoloid settlers in Burma who had adopted Theravada Buddhism from Sri Lanka. “Pls speak first against any injustice Sat. Even today. Hamdan: The way you talk using abusive language. Chan however infers without providing sufficient and necessary conditions that in the north there is influx of “Chittagonians. read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions. Abid Bahar invasion of Arakan has resulted in a displacement of Chakmas.. while the Rakhine Buddhist ultranationalists see the name change for themselves as a deserving one.. under Kyawktaw Township in Arakan State of Burma. be just and encouraging the development of art and literature. Rohingyamaa is less of a comedy or an entertainment piece. This understanding is highly probable. The expulsion of Indians from Burma began and many walked on foot and perished on their way to India 218 Dr. At the river. to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance. To qualify for citizenship. The present research findings also brought to light another xenophobic propaganda technique used by the Rakhine intelligentsia that one day the Muslim army from Bangladesh will conquer Burma and will turn Burma BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 39 into an Islamic country. Here we are tracing the Chandras. this does not mean that there was no Muslim community in Arakan before the state was absorbed into British India.. the identity Rohingya nation as a survival mechanism can only help them to return to their ancestral homeland or at least in future will help them to see the unfolding of a much better future than what is presently now for the Rohingya people that are scattered around the globe.. Rathedaung.” In Arakan Rohingyas in common are called the “Kulas.” He said. “Look. It shows that in this crossroads of South Asia and South East Asia. but in the deeply rooted question of ethnic intolerance that lies at the heart of self-identity of all Burmese. Abid Bahar by the sound of shooting.wikipedia.. The world communities should BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 145 come forward to rescue the refugees . inactive ones.. “Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society: A Case Study of Rohingya-Burmese Relations.org/wiki/Persecution_of_Muslims_in_Burma… the Burmese military has oppressed the Rohingyas in an attempt to gain the support of the local Rakhine population. Abid Bahar of army rule has accustomed the people to looking for enemies. Intellectuals are the designers of ideas that “create values and cultural norms. 957 Mongolian (Burmese) invasion and fall of the Chandras and the beginning of Tabaung Mongoloid dynasty and also the beginning of “Kula” (Chandra Indians. . There was a similar trend of settlement taking place in the rest of Bengal and particularly in Chittagong of Bengal. However. The author states. We will prey together. The abandonment of the art of civilization led to its internal chose and the eventual Burmese capture of Arakan and its contemporary situation of anarchy. including reports to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Ba Tha 1960: 33-36. beginning from 1784 and 1942 and in the later time influxes. those who survive live in refugee camps as Burma’s stateless refugee people. the official language of Arakan still remained Persian. I keep moving and asking for your whereabouts. Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights.” (2) The Western media concentrates mostly on Burma’s eastern border with Thailand based on information gained from NGOs. Abid Bahar record is a monk originally from Arakan who supported the military’s genocide in that province. it was not the laptop. Arakanese Mogh and the Bengali Sultanite rulers. his findings could at best be seen as an exhilarating wild-goose chase.. 1994 “sustained purposeful action by a perpetrator to physically destroy a collectivity directly or indirectly.” However. Article 15. justice and peace in the world. Remarkably. some disappearing in the dark cloud.. See Aye Chan’s. Again.org/index. “The village committee authorized by the Village Amendment Act of 1924 paved the way for the Imam (moulovi) and the trusteeship committee members of the village mosque to be elected to the village council.. I was born in Southern Chittagong and you lived in the refugee camp in Southern Chittagong. and “gya” Chittagonian means natives was known to have been given by Chittagonian Bengalis to the people who arrived to Chittagong from the direction of the “Mrohaung” city. (27) Michael Charney.” said the Wolf. Andaman Islands. they preferred to abandon their Rohingya identity. the casual observers of Burma even find Rohingyas (with mostly Indo-Semitic features) absurd to be the indigenous ethnic people of Burma. mail2shahid@gmail… 1947. Then we see the dialogue of the deaf. “The area of Arakan was about 20.. Zohra’s sister collapsed.. Mabud: No. Siddiq: Maa. little children ran to their mothers to bring their NRC cards. It is true. in a paper written in Japanese. A very short time later. Thanks to Stuart Black of ABOV (Art Beyond Our Vision). There was a small river flowing next to our village. Arakan history shows that the Moghs and Rohingyas lived in peace for centuries… …. . 1992. In his article Aye Chan asks “Who are the Rohingyas?” and continues.. as a result of their common suffering. Chittagong and in Montreal.. Kaiser: Why do they use the name “Rohingya” as an excuse to declare us as non Burmese? BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 151 Mabud: It is like the wolf and lamb story.: Akyab. only two camps remain and even these are expected to be closed by June 2003..) I remember many things!!! I was only five years old.. I have many friends who will come to see you? We didn’t have a country we could call our own.. These people are known as the Austronesians. Syed Alam Shah.”“come and learn.” Again no source of Aye Chan’s information is provided to prove the trend. “built on hillocks amid the rice plain and intersected by canals which served as streets. as a matter of recognition. So should we all go back to Africa? (27) In sending everybody to Africa. we see Francis Buchanan records “Rohingya” as an ethnonym in 1799. We also see similar centers of Hindu kingdoms in lower Thiland.” http://www. Endnotes (1) Aye Kyaw. But the language he is referring to is not “Urdur” but “Urdu.” II.. they will have to share the pie. Mabud: You want to read that for me? Shahid bhai: Ofcourse! I love to read it for you. Food security is affected by several major human rights violations: 1) Compulsory labor deprives villagers of their daily income.rakhapura. The camp scattered over two hillocks along the Cox’s Bazar Teknaf road is a pathetic collection of tiny sacks made of bamboo and coconut leaves that exposed the belongings within some earthen pots. a new refugee influx of more than 10. He defeated Wali Khan who was the king of Arakan for a short period of time.. bidding them final farewell we returned home. As mentioned earlier. women and children. this must be a good thing by the Rohingya minorities to ask for their rights which he found absurd. and Hafez believes them to be in Bangladesh now.org/bmc/index. In 1937. in 1839 to 248. Was Prophet Muhammad a Buddha? Adapted from the book.” He doesn’t accept it for the difference in the spelling of r and y among the Burmese and the Arakanese.. I think it was a result of Japanese invasion of Burma which ignited racism among some Arakani racist people. 1960 Memorandum by Rohingya M. I found Aye Chan showing the case as if this was a trend during the 1990s but in reality it was not. this is the cost of living in a “frontier region. and is mindful of their legitimate aspirations and concerns. towing them out to sea and “leaving them to die” without engines and barely any food or water. it must be a bad dream. 1959. 214 Dr. left Arakan for Southern Chittagong. The Mohamuni was cast in bronze amd colored in gold.. In accounting the returnees. “to make war is improper” remained as truth for so long? Many of the contemporary research on Arakan show that after the event of 1784. their political and cultural rights have not so far been recognized and guaranteed. Those people who came along with the British colonial administration were regarded as non-ethnic minorities. historically. Rohingya’s earliest ancestory in Arakn however. and therefore supports the military’s extermination policy. Japan and Bangladesh. as mentioned above. I saw everything so clearly! Siddiq: I think you are right! It must be a nightmare! But it is true.” Rohingyas were seen as people migrated from Chittagong of Bangladesh after 1826.3 million kyat from the fire victims. It is interesting to note that the latest exodus was caused after Burma’s 1982 constitutional Act.. Reeta Chowdhari Tremblay.. 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Siddiq: Mabud bhai. This is an oxymoron of a smart—flat mentality. .. The smiling anti-Rohingya Drs.. morass. She would run around the valley and collect wild flowers.vn/group/soc..asp Swapna Bhattacharya (Chakraborti).. It is true. racism. the process needs to be expanded to include all stakeholders. The soldiers then cut his penis and put it in his mouth.. Printing and Stay. IX. http://bangladesh-web.” (p.” Instantaneously. the SPDC authorities falls into a political problem. nor Rakines. p. fresh vegetables from the field. Abid Bahar Article 12. It was the regular policy of most Burmese kings … sustained trickle of low visibility. place to sleep or play! God.org/library/pdf/ ASA160052004ENGLISH/$File/ASA1600504. migrated to Arakan during the Btitish period and Rakhines have been living in Arakan from the time of the Buddha. he said he was once a refugee in India and suffered like us. and understand Burmese culture and history. UAE and Saudi Arabia. 2003. you have to investigate about it and it you find truth in it. B.” (p. The ban on Rohingyas getting married to Rohingyas introduced a genocidal crime against humanity. and the trail of refugee production from Arakan as a case.” http://www..ibiblio. In this scenario.. The fact of the matter is that genocide was committed by the ultra-nationalist Arakanese army with its local followers who were “the leaders of ANC (Arakan National Congress).. Arab merchants. Mabud: Siddiq.” Moghs left behind their Bengali wives and concubines and children now called the Baruas… But if there has been the alliance between Bangladeshi monks and Arakani anti-Bengali Ashin Nayaka types of xenophobes in Arakan. and confiscation of their property were done. Chulalongkorn University. While the Chakmas in their escape finally settled in the north east of Chittagong and now are Bangladeshi citizens. Chakmas and the Rohingyas are two interesting but different racial groups scattered both in Chittagong and Arakan kept their unanticipated similarities that derived from their historic roots. In understanding the refugee problem in Western Burma. (2) BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 79 (3) Francis Buchanan. (16) U Shw Zan and Aye Chan’s Influx Viruses: The Illegal Muslims in Arakan. (Chakma Bijak. Aung San for the first time successfully brought the different ethnic groups together through consensus. says. Bangladesh. We are fighting against the xenophobes who are trying to deny our basic rights. So instead of recognizing the historic fact of chronic Burmese invasion and occupation of Arakan. Geneva. the Arabs didn’t bring their women with them and probably took local Negroid Rakkhas females as their wives forming the Chandra-Rohingya population of Arakan. Beginning from the Burmese Invasion of Arakan in 1784 almost every trace of Muslim presence was razed to the ground with the claim that Arakan is owned by the Moghs only. and to ensure that no further discrimination is carried out against persons belonging to this community. Myanmar (Burma). and now it became a desert. http://www. the name “Rohingya” was heard by Francis Buchanan in 1798 in Burma… 25) This accusation is libelous. “We have so many rape to fear Suu. The military seems to be aiming at ridding Burma of Rohingyas by any method. The consequence of the retaking over of Arakan by Noromi—kla with the help of the Muslim army had the effect of the settlement of a great number of Rohingya Muslim population in Arakan. it has unilaterally renamed the province from its original Arakan into the Rakhine state. Nyi. the Japanese immediately took over the control of Arakan. . (Siddiq brings water for the mother to drink. generally known as the Rohingyas.. there is a village called Kakara. destroyed temples. it again increased with more frequent sentry duty and the building of a new army camp [in Kha Moung Seik] and two “model villages” for Buddhist settlers in Maungdaw Township. and two brothers-in-law. 785-957 Arab traders began to settle both in Arakan and Chittagong.. how much acceptance do they allow or show. (b) Minbya in Akyab District 27 villages. A Short Historical Background of Arakan Aye Chan. Some of these works are so well-crafted that they could be read as seemingly academic works.php?option=com_content&task=vie w&id=105&Itemid=33 also see http://www. on the Rohingyas” “A Report on the conditions and sufferings of the Arakanese in Maungdaw. The Prophet Muhammed also encouraged his followers not to follow blind doctrines but reason. rose to its fame when in 1406 it looked to West for help from the Sultan of Bengal. Now. 2005. where there was also the Zamindari system and most zamindars were Hindus. Chakma-Rohingya similarities Chakmas are a racially Mongoloid people but speak a proto-Bengali called Chittagonian. bribery and taxing minorities and taxing the movement of goods and humans. I think you were thinking about the two people came to see us off at the airport. At this time… . (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children… by other means of social protection. It shall promote understanding. email correspondences glorifying their own race and putting down the minorities as foreigners.. Contrary to Aye Chan’s portrayal of the Rohingyas in this and in his other articles as being dangerous Muslim people. 209 210 Dr. In Arakan however. Realizing the ethnic diversity of Burma. 2008” (15) Buddhist Muslim Unity Association. you can have unlimited opportunities to grow. My father said to my mother. During this operation.” But revolutionaries are not shy people. ethnicity.172 refugees to Bangladesh. Rohingya Muslims… Mabud: You heard about Charney.182 Chapter 14: Islam in Buddhist Environment: Muslim Leadership and the Contemporary Challenges in Burma . But the biggest culprits in such situations are not the ordinary people who also participate in genocide. In the 2001 Krstic case. Forkan: In Arakan.. Considering the state of the Rohingya people reflected in this work. Buthidaung.. Aggmeda Khyang and other Buddhist places glitter in the blue sky.A. or “who is the most dangerous enemy to get rid of first. L. the boats scattered and landed at many different places on the Bangladesh and Burmese sides. I extend my heartfelt gratitude to both contributors whose scholastic works are credibly expected to give appropriate answers to all . a Burmese Sikh businessman who arrived at the Thai-Burmese border in early October after being involved in the September demonstrations. In July 2007… (14) In 1950. particularly for the Arakan State and beyond.. 40-57. referring this to the later Arakani ruler’s atrocities in the Bay. As a consequence… “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire.. this was the first wave of the typical Rohingya population formation in southern Arakan. gold and jewelry from the refugees in the boats.. There I met UNHCR.. Pathans. will have difficulty satisfying this criterion in the eyes of the Burmese elite. alcohol. and the democratic forces to succeed. Pori was only 18. yes. A day later.. In contrast. 1991. as a matter of survival strategy officially adapted the name. Problems and the Prospects The biggest problem Muslims face today is xenophobia. 2000. the ICTR in Akayesu (the first ever conviction for genocide) found that acts of sexual violence may “constitute genocide in the same way as any other act as long as they were committed with the specific intent to destroy. They are living at Natala villages or Rakhine villages at night. Unlike many others. there is a difference between ghost writing and history writing! Aye Chan says. Burma had democratic government. South Asian Studies Centre.. During this time of my working with them. 1287—Mongols under Kublai Khan conquer Pagan. what made you highly educated? Kirakini: I took some courses from university.. My maternal grand father’s name is Amiruzzaman. and Kalam. With this change. You keep saying “refugee.. Surprisingly. We are moving forward. Despite our destitute status. (4). In this “rebirth.. . “Michael W. including photocopying..(16) There was no action taken by the British to bring the Rohingya refugees back to Arakan. help our people and the people of Burma to have democracy! Ameen! (Amena finished her prayer and saying “I always pray to God to help us to return to Arakan!” Mabud: Yes.94 Burman Invasion of Arakan and the Rise of Nonbengali Settlements in Bangladesh . . and the direct support provided by the army to the Rakhine ultranationalists. by settling them in 3rd countries because they are human beings. But the majority of the ethnic group. it confirms that Moghs are the late comers to Arakan. the membership list of these committees. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and “to cause it to be disseminated. http://www. and persists even among some representatives of the so-called modern democratic leadership movement. political. “read.” (p. “Barbarity in the Bay and the Battered Beast.” (22) Undoutedly. Whereas Puran.. After the event however my father was fired from his job. Abid Bahar promote Arakan’s Mongoloid—Buddhist heritage and an ethnocentric educational propaganda movement was continued among the Arakanese people to promote the exclusive Rakhine national identity… we will listen. Interestingly. So I shouldn’t say anything. . “each human being has unique value. During this first Sino Burman war in 1283. They claim that they have never heard of any such people in Arakan and people with such names like “Rohingya” must be from outside Araakan. said a village elder from the village. I remember peasants sitting by the roadside. In addition to the above. Given this realism. As a result of the intimidation policy.. thoughtful but a smile crossed across her face). (5) ‘One blood. arrived in Bangladesh at the end of February. there seem to be confusion about why these people of Arakani origin in common speak in a language closer to Chittagonian Bengali but not in Rakhine or in Burmese. 15) In this description.. The destruction of mosques in Mandalay by Monks caught in camera. Habibullah History of the Rohingyas. and to ensure that no further discrimination is carried out against persons belonging to this community.com/theology/buddhism7. his Bengali retinues were allowed to settle down in the outskirts of Mrauk-U. (3) Local hoodlums: who take up law into their hands to commit crimes These people are committing crimes against humanity. (7) To escape from this constant “Mogh terror” during this time of their rule. Rohingyas are now being labelled by Rakhine intelligentsia as foreigners who deserve to be exterminated. which the Arakanese have taken… we the Rohingyas people together will take care of our nation. accessed on November 20. the Rakkhapura League was established in 1918. From this understanding. http://en. as “foreigners” in Arakan. The new circumstances also brought an end to the infamous “Golden age” of Arakan that now lives only in the history book to tell the tale of human suffering and misery in that part of the world caused by the joint adventures by the Portuguese and the Moghs. In the Arakan state collaborators like Aye Kyaw convinced the military to even declare the native Rohingyas as the non Burmese citizens and he contested the differences on the basis of race. which Aye Chan erroneously calls the “illegal enclave. In the endeavor to grow. hopefully are not some radical group While Bangladesh must ensure religious freedom of minorities. to that of the people with their all-too-brief experience of democracy. No one was ready for this organized crime against humanity. as such: a. I know in every community there are betrayers and destructive people. as a result of Burmese invasions. Razzaq and Haque 1995: 15). inciting hooligans to destroy minority properties and exterminating them from their homelands.F.org//index. 1951 Rohingya demand for immediate cessation of genocide of Rohingyas in Arakan. A policy of severe restrictions of their movement aims at containing them. Wassalam the rest of the people present says). along with Ne Win.. There are complains of Fascist and fundamentalist superficial elements in the leadership. the military intentionally creates communal violence. out of those 3 hundred thousand refugees. or dolus specialis.. This includes severe restrictions on freedom of movement. over 200.. Rashong Island and Kyauktaw….com/contact.” News.. for the similarities between the Chakma and the Rohingya language see Abid Bahar. they kept saying that! Mabud: Yes. We can have photo exhibition and collect photos and travel to different cities with collection of photographs of all kinds. a result of mainly 1784 Burmese invasions. accessed on November 12..” said Pan Cha. we found that Swindlers were the most dangerous enemy of the Burmese people. Puran. Morals could be taught from stories like the boy who cried wolf. 37.” these works provide justifications to the unsophisticated to get to action. many young and innocent lives of people like Pori. Burmese Government agreed to repatriate the refugees.1 (Spring 2003). Contrary to the claim. you are not just my mother. CHAPTER 5 “KULAS”: THE ABORIGINALS OF ARAKAN (Part of this paper was presented in Kulalampur.. “The ANC called all representatives of ethnic groups of Arakan except Rohingya representation from the Muslim ethnic group. on April 8.. whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers. If I am right. Take few more days off please.bangladeshonline. August 26. as do the Statutes of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). Malayan islands. The book was published in the United States. in claiming the Rohingyas as illegal immigrants to Burma… Aye Chan says. Buddhists pagodas. (11) Why did Buddhism disappear from South Asia? Brahmin atrocities that destroyed Buddhism in the Subcontinent.. in the former Yugoslavia. there are 20.. To a tourist.. This obviously raises the question of the nature of democracy and human rights they profess. not only the racial supremacy complex which many Burmans are brought up with. I will pray for the people of Kanada. At that time.” (p.E. people still remember the Moghul Prince Shah Suja who was first given shelter by the king of Arakan only to be robbed and killed with his entire family later. commonly known as the “Puppet Master. You write to the rohingyanet to publish only news. He says. the members of the Muslim minority in North Rakhine State. 1908. He didn’t get our Rohingya culture of showing respect to each other. in 1799 even met people in Burma who identified themselves as Rohingyas. The youths were carried by boats at night from other villages and unloading them to their destinations.” Everyday the gold and silver. it even led to the rise of Arakani origin population in southern Chittagong and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Abid Bahar and most others (like the Bangladeshi Rakhines) permanently settled in Chittagong.” it is your problem because you are most likely not informed of your country. the main purpose of my trip to Kitchener is to give you some information about this topic. The British never attempted to rescue the Arakani king to his throne. I kept smiling seeing it moving and glowing…. . “Just ImagineThis—You Are a Rohingya…. strategic studies centres.. From our vantage point.. Arakan Women Welfare Association.. both Arakanese and Bengali Muslims in the Mayu Frontier looked at each other with distrust…” 2005 Burma declares that its seat of government is moving to a new site near the central town of Pyinmana. Abid Bahar Kalam: Mabud. We continue to see that despite its present improvised existance. London. the newly defined legal category of “crimes against humanity. xenophobia went main stream. “Did you see her?” “No” they said. Contrary to this. New York (This paper was written in response to a conference on the Rohingya and the democratic movement of Myanmar.. Ok. The present research findings show that Burmese invasion of Arakan resulting in the creation of refugees has been a cronic problem in this region. Therefore.” is simply a xenophobic Rakhine pretention. society is bound to be fragmented. Unfortunately. I travelled in the rain. more Arakanese and Hindu Indians were involved in the ancillary services of the colonial administration. (Windsor: University of Windsor. and the second invasion was by Min Khaung Yaza’s invasion in 1406 and the third major invasion was by Budapawa in 1784. The Burmese king in order to put down the Arakanese Buddhist spirit also took away Mohamuni. Rohingyas trace their ancestry in Arakan from the 8th century.. Our research shows that Rohingyas called by the Arakan’s Tibeto-Burman population as the “Kulas” were the offsprings of the aboriginl Indian Chandras. However.” On December 9. I don’t know about you. we will have a big second generation Rohingya community there.com.[Bangladesh]”—http:// en.. And more painful was the groans of some Rohingya women wailing terribly. Then came 1962. surprisingly. He says: “ . In the meantime.. More precisely. the xenophobic writers use an ethnocentric history. This is not a healthy and creative thing for the Rohingya survival. Why has it now become so difficult for co-existance? It seems that Rohingyas are the victims of extremist nationalism based on race and religion. Demonstrating the recent growing confidence of the army.” (p.. (2) By being nice don’t led them become spoiled to led them do accesses such as to buy them toys or whatever they want or whatever they want. Joseph P. 1971. many anti-Muslim pamphlets have circulated in Burma claiming that the Muslim community wants to establish supremacy through intermarriage. “Am I injured? I didn’t feel any pain.. those that were left behind also raised their hands to the sky and said.. . The flow of Indians returning to India as a result of these policies began in 1964 (Donison 1970: 199-200). following the Nazi destruction of the Jews of Europe. 1991-1992 Refugee international report says: “The Rohingya have faced continuing persecution by the military government in Burma. That brings bad result for us. In their willful omission. (1) Buddhism is world religion.. In fact. led to Arakani king Noromi-kla with his large followers taking shelter at Gaur. This time the Burmese government made sure that Rohingyas do not carry any official Burmese document. To keep it under continued domination. Alexander Horstmann “Ethnohistorical Perspectives on Buddhist-Muslim Relations and Coexistence in Southern Thailand: From Shared Cosmos to the Emergence of Hatred?” http://www. and suppresses core evidence to make it look credible. For five consecutive nights Zohra was gang raped by the same soldiers at her home. mapping a field of historical and Cultural research. 2007 held in Tokyo. In Burma’s present state of affairs that promotes racism. Practically all Indians except those who were not physically fit or were utterly helpless began to move from place to place in search of safety and protection until they could reach India.198 Western Burma and Bangladesh . Los Angeles. in comparison have been seen as the favorites of the Burmese nationalists over the Rohingyas. 2006 ANC (Arakani National Council) a xenophobic Mogh organization declares the Rohingyas as Bangladeshis and in the agenda recommends to the democracy leaders to exclude Rohingyas from any future share of power in Arakan.. Norway Rohingya News Groups APPENDIX 4 ROHINGYA GENOCIDE IN WESTERN BURMA Evidence of Rohingya Genocide in Arakan reported by Asia Watch. since all their ancestors born before 1824 are long dead. causing Burma’s continued misstep towards modern democracy. you invite your friends from Rathedaung. of the economic. (28) Aye Kyaw. They placed a huge ammunition box on his shoulders and ordered him to follow them. The most significant rise of nonBengali settlement in Chittagong took place due to this Burmese genocide that took place in 1784. also see Marwaan Macan-Markar. “What We Know: On the universals of language and rights.R. (26) Website.. more than a million Rohingyas are now refugees and live in outside Burma.. go to bed.. He will not change. he is a wicked man.. As a Mohayana Buddhist kingdom with its very much caste hierarchy. Habibullah. Now we know who the enemy is. These Arabs were mostly the Yamanis and the Gulf residents from the Southern cost of Arabia and Persia. . 1962 U Nu opens federal seminar to hear minority problems..” was the initiator of this tradition of ruling Burma through xenophobia and intimidation.”(13) Common themes and strategies for Buddhist-Muslim understanding Muslims in Burma live in Buddhist environment. Despite the rise of a great deal of propaganda and hatred. They were called the Rakkhasas. As the Bengali Muslims and Hindus immigrated and settled in Arakan after the British occupation they are regarded as non-indigenous . (46) Burma’s BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 41 Arakani intelligentsia doesn’t have to educate people in xenophobia. Other than Rakhine and the Rohingya returnees. Rohingyas are the decedents of the Portuguage and Mogh capture of Bengalis from Lower Bengal and populating them in Arakan where these people were forced to work as slaves.D.. no there are some evil ones.” However. I mean he needs a female company. The story of Rohingyamaa is about Arakanese Rohingya mother. For now the log is the international body.. (20) There is no doubt that as news of the restoration of law and order spread.burmanet. Noam Chomsky says that our innate conceptual structures that drive through the dynamic interaction with experience. to be nonviolent. tell us what you know Anuwar: Look. 1433 Foundation of the Mrauk U dynasty in the city of Mrohaung near Lamro River. Unfortunately. My brother Ustad in KSA was explaining about our children learning Rohingyalish language. the term Rohingya was used to refer to both the Hindus and Muslims of Arakan.1. with the biggest influx in 1991 and 1992. exodus is a deep. exodus is a deep. Abid Bahar English… He went to the camp but learned nothing. part 11. Abid Bahar Stretching Imagination “One of the underlying causes of the communal violence was the Zamindary System brought by the British from Bengal. In addition. The question to Aye Chan is: how is this possible when the British withdrew from Arakan and the Rakhine leaders were in charge of Arakan under the Japanese Fascist army? Contrary to this. From a distance she shed tears. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. from the word Rakkhas. The dominance of both Fersi (Persian) in Rohingya and Chakma is visible in their use of their “no” expression before verb. New York: Arakanese in United States.rakhapura. 40. Some of them may not be [from Burma]. often by monks. I am highly educated. we agreed that those people who were in Burma before the end of the First Anglo-Burmese War in 1826 should be regarded as ethnic minorities.com/ (45) See Alamgir Serajuddin. Dhaka. however. displayed. Sometimes.” almost everybody except Than Shaw. U Nu also named the Rohingya majority area in Burma’s North-West as the Mayu Frontier. It is important to note that Shah Suja before taking shelter in Arakan was the Moghul Govornor of Bengal (1639-60) and was being chased by the Moghal General Mir Jumbla. fruitful and open dialogue is possible..” SOS. instead of helping Bengal at this difficult time.. . As a matter of fact. In addition to its Rakhine version of the Rohingya history. Zohra’s husband—a grocery shop owner was forcibly taken away from his shop by 144 Dr. Mogh oppression was so unbearable that Chakma ballads.000 of them-it was sort of racial migration” Harvey seems to refer to the widespread Rohingya migration to Chittagong. Article 14. The peasants. the anti-Rohingya Aye Chan instead of removing the colonial legacy of confusion. Democratic Party of Arakan. Even notice the last part of the name of the Mongoloid group Tanchngya is similar to the Rohingyas. South Asian Studies Centre. Abid Bahar from the narrowly defined ultranationalist’s vision of Rakhine greatness. It appears that the “aboriginal Kulas” seems to be the ancient Chandra Hindu (kula) Rohingyas of Arakan. they sided with the Bengalis (the Chandras) but were defeated. exodus is a deep.. on the other the democracy movement leaders’s model of Burman democracy.”(19) From 1930’s led by the Arakani xenophobic Pongi monk leader U Ottoma Arakan became anti-Rohingya and anti-Muslim.D. Chakma. the members of the Muslim minority in North Rakhine State. at home in Arakan Ashin Nayaka spreads xenophobia among the Rakhines against other ethnic Arakani minority people’s freedom. ironically he also boldly mentions his educational background. If we go by the logic that Rohynga people have roots in Chittagong they should all be thrown out of present day Burma/Myanmar then by that logic every person of nonaboroginal root should be thrown out of Australia..” (p. Mabud: Hi! Stephen: I am so sorry to hear about your mother.” Iman: Did she wait for you? Mabud: I couldn’t see anybody around and where is my mom. Haaaaa!! Portuguese! I heard that for some reason he is anti Rohingya.org/freeburma/ethnic/rohingya1.. 1960 U Nu formed Mayu Frontier Administration and kept it under direct central government control.1 (Spring 2003). They were in a group of 600 to 700 people. M. shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures. Aye Chan identified these returnees as “Chittagonians. who had migrated into Arakan after the province was ceded to British India under the terms of the Treaty of Yandabo. Muslim names like Akyab Akk Ab.. They are the care-givers. it appears that the term was in vogue in Burma even before 1826. said a local trader from the village.” Aye Chan seemed to be trapped in his imaginary “enclave” he wanted to build to facilitate the military to act on the Rohingyas like “ . You will one day return to Arakan. 2007. One continues to wonder: unlike in Eastern Europe after the cold war and Indonesia. London: G Bell and sons.. Another Yoke on Rohingya Muslims. he doesn’t recognize its victims being the Rohingyas. Aye Kyaw and his student Aye Chan as teachers themselves while enjoys the citizenship in the West preaches violence in Arakan are not alone. Whereas it is essential. Lord Buddha said . 20) Here. the present day total area of Arakan . Akyab changed to Sittwe and the Rohingya historic sites like the Sandikhan Mosque. (3) Muslims of Malay ancestry in Kawthaung. Article 3. We all had those things once. In March 1946 the Muslim Liberation Organization (MLO) was formed with Zaffar Kawal..Xlibris. “Go! Go!” I didn’t want to leave them. in whole or in part. Then I saw Salim and Dara two demon fighter knights who are helping our people. Faraidi movement was largely a homegrown movement against the oppressive Zamindari system in Bengal. Article 24. All we see today are hill and hill tops with Pagodas only built by slave labor. U Yonus. they should encourage themes that can lead to more understanding between religious groups and avoid tendency toward fundamentalist expressions. He has contributed numerous papers to international seminars and conferences and published numerous papers on Burma. (16) After centuries of living in Arakan. She was always worried when I left my village and wished for my safe return. 1975 and 1978. As a specialist in Ethnic Relations in Burma. Mabud: (At the hospital) “Maa!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!” “Maaaa!!!!!!!!!!!!!!” “You left us so soon. crawling and putting everything in my mouth and soon I was chasing the butterflies. In this display of repressive rule. Feel yourself comfortable.. the ethnic violence between Arakanese Buddhists and those Muslim Chittagonians brought a great deal of bloodshed to Arakan during the World War II and after 1948. When asked if they were Burmese citizens. 53.. in the subsequent period in Arakan with this beauty was also born a beast. Rakhine and Chakma tribes settled in Chittagong. this honor being claimed by the Burmans. if Muslims were favored by the British as Chan has mentioned before. Yes. PART 1: REPORT ON THE SITUATION FOR MUSLIMS IN BURMA http://www. UAE and Bangladesh were interviewed in Japan and in Bangladesh to find out information inside Arakan. (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. (p. to be self reliant in doing things responsibly.: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms” (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan. Dhaka: University Press Ltd. by which in Eastern India the aged most commonly support their infirmities. Research shows that such understanding appear to be too simplistic and racially motivated.. Remember that we are from Arakan. the Rakhines and the Rohingyas. We will now be living as if in a subhuman status. the author.. in Political Science. Smith says further in his ‘The Muslim “Rohingya” of Burma’: “What is BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 211 interesting here is the unusual history of Buddhism in Arakan. in the shadow of the Holocaust. nothing to feed ourselves. the Bengal Sultan sent General Sindhi Khan with 30.. 1957). fortunately.. **Hafez Ahmad. Rohingyas are Burmese-born citizens.. The Act officially declared Rohingyas as non-Burmese.. The word ‘Maho’ or ‘Maha’ in Pali and Sanskrit mean Great and Illustrious and ‘Metta’ means mercy. Ibid. To begin.. the northern part of Chittagong was populated by Indo-Semitic Bengalis. the Chittagonians were left behind the Arakanese throughout the colonial period. I have seen NRC certificates with Burmese seal testifying their Burmese nationality. 161. are mostly peasants. Chan’s wishful thinking took away the 30 thousand soldiers of Wali Khan and the 20 thousand of Sandikhan’s army and their local wives and children who settled by the Kalander River Valley. but may end with a group of people being excluded from a society to the point where they are destroyed. we see. not just that he also has lots of children. Here we were about 20 people. The contemporary xenophobic authors in general while recognize Arakan’s glorious history of interaction with other cultures.” 2005 See for details. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. “I am suffering in silence. 1044 A. I soon realized the very serious implications behind such material that resulted in the extermination of the Rohingya people of Burma. He was a true Buddhist. Both of the above tribal groups speak in Chittagonian dialect. called Arakan now became part of Burma. “During the early post-war years. Habibullah says. he and his six colleagues including U Razzak were assassinated on July 19. Soon after U Kalam. and the nationalists began dismissing Rohingyas from government jobs. there are different progressive groups and individuals.223 Important Rohingya Websites .” Chandra rule demonstrated in the Brahmni-derived Gupta-and Debanagri script in Arakan’s early history.” (I go not). But how can the self-righteous Kirkinis and the xenophobic Rakhines stop me? My commitment is deep both as an academician and as an activist. Influx Viruses. Burma and Bangladesh has a small frontier and the dispute is largely on the Rohingya issue. From then on. You are not from Burma. (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense. “ . The Qur’an stated that the followers of Dh’ul Kifl are righteous people. wao-global@yahoogroups. mass arrest. Over the whole nine-day trek. (44)This has been so widespread especially after 1942 that the fleeing refugees in southern Chittagong coined a name for Arakan being the “Moghur Mulluk. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. a decade after the latest pogrom of 1991-92. Amena: Not far from there. CHAPTER 2 XENOPHOBIC BURMESE LITERARY WORKS—A PROBLEM OF DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT IN BURMA For the past half a century.” (6) Evidently. the phenomenon of intolerance seems to be the deep-rooted cause. http://www.” Arthur Phayre.culture.. 1760 Possession of Chittagong from the Moghuls by the East India Company.” Thirdly. is a place now inhabited largely by Thai Muslims who like Chittagonian population were originally converted to Islam by the Arabs and the Persians. “Arakan Studies: Challenges and Contested Issues. who know me. it was not until the event of Shah Suja. Abid Bahar about their business every day without taking the slightest notice of their new King Log lying in their midst. and easily angered. Harvey. This is evident also from the fact that Arabs developed a port city in Arakan known as Akyab. I went to Poori. . Here it encourages the policy of multiculturalism which means that you can keep the valuable cultural traits of your culture and at the same time it demands you to respect other people’s culture. the land of the aboriginal dark skinned people. 5) Confiscation of land to build villages for new Buddhist settlers and expansion of military facilities continues….. You were known as the Rohingya people. (15) Chan. Amena to escape the genocide left her village but on her way out of the country she lost her husband and the daughter in the military’s shooting at innocent people. this type of attitude doesn’t help to promote either democracy or the meaning of citizenship.. In 1942 Japan occupied Burma and the ultra-nationalist Buddhists jointly massacred the Karens. so the warning doesn’t apply to him. “The Strange Murder of King Thiri-Thudhamma. the village headman of Rak-chaung village in Myebon Township and his two younger brothers were killed by the kula (Muslim) villagers. In consequence. Clearly.. and the young girls they took without any consideration of their parents. He was the Rakhine ultra-nationalist during the 1930’s been the first anti-Muslim xenophobe and was behind the anti-Muslim riots in Rangoon.” (p. This work. in Bengali “Eta Ki?” In the same way. . Anawrahta was known as a religious fanatic and his attack of Northern Arakan left some mark in this direction. Under the present circumstances in Burma. and the trouble-makers to his peace-loving and respectable Rakhine gentleman. It has been snowing for the past two days.. I wondered at the face and faced the face daily.” Kalander Press. .com/. which male member’s sometime love to do.. the dual forces of conflict seemed to give Rohingyas the creative energy of developing the loosely constructed newly emerged feeling of a Rohingya nation developed especially in the Diasporas. 32.” It is clearly a faulty analogy. the capital of Arakan State and went to their destinations and returned back after. “The coins of Wasali were in pure Brahminical tradition. The author of the present novel was a refugee himself in India’s Mizoram state in 1971 and personally experienced the suffering of refugee people fleeing persecution.. the Chandra-Rohingyas (Hindu-Muslim mixed) population of Arakan were concentrated in the north was racially different from the Burmese population. Internet site: http://www….. some had been detained at the camp. some are pretentious as being academic works. 200 Dr. He wanted a closer cooperation between Hindus and Buddhists.. Burma faces a growing demand for change. Chakmas speak Chittagonan and Rakhines speak an archaic version of Burmese. the Moghs and the other smaller tribals and the Bangladeshi Rohingyas. Faroque: No.” still holds truth for the Muslims of Burma. Contrary to this. I t was a beautiful face. Such as Chakma English Rohingyalish Moi no jaim / I will not go / Ai no jiam There are interesting differences as well: Boda Egg Anda ____________________ Gura Baby Fulu ____________________ Dhar Sharp Moinna ____________________(10) Apart from the above. England: Footprint handbooks Ltd. restricted access to medical care… you will not understand. Noakhali and Comilla. with its smiling government officials and monks passing by in their yellow robes and its silent minorities occupied in their daily chores. Dhaka. . Why to cheat each other? Why can’t we have free and frank discussion? Samad: Kirakini.. whereby exorbitantly-priced business licenses are sold for monopolies for trading in specific commodities. The systematic rape. Aye Chan’s present work confirms the situation and seems to weather a continuing existence of genocide in Arakan. who wanted to terminate the traditional Burman understanding of minority peoples as subject peoples. Haji Kalam. the ICTY found that the mass killing of approximately 8. p. Social and Cultural Rights: Policies of food deprivation in Myanmar Madame Chair.. We have to get help from our well-wishers. inciting Rohingya genocide and helping the extermination policy in Arakan. instead of following the democratic policy of ‘unity in diversity. Burma has become a despotic country with a world-wide reputation for human rights violations and producing refugees. Surprisingly. Charney based on his examination of Rakhing chronicles finds Rakhine assertions inconsistent because the “Rakhine chronicles even indicate numerous stories of local kings who fought Bilus who were said to have dominated the littoral. areas in the north bordering Bangladesh are migrants from Chittagong.. Now we are near a hill but still in the valley. the military has continued to apply its medieval method of nation-building model by its historic purge of its ethnic members and their heritage. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. U Nu and his democratic government recognized the Rohingyas as an indigenous ethnic community of Burma. Next year we were sent back to Arakan.” (p.. . … and restrictions on marriages.” June.700 Muslims are known as Thum Htaung Khunya (Three thousand seven hundred).23 Racism in Burma: Aye Chan’s “Enclave” with “Influx Viruses” Revisited . at the time when it was committed. To avoid this derogatory term used by the (now) Rakhines. .. there is a large group of up to 700. Rangoon. . As usual with xenophobic works. Persian soldiers who marred local women. Endnotes (1) Francis Buchanan. . national and international.com even claim that the term Rohingya meant “gypsies.. (Finished breakfast.com/view. women and children were walking to the river crying . His example as a researcher is one I personally aspire to follow and I am sure many students of Arakan and modern Burma feel similarly. it seems some Burmese democracy leaders’ hypocritical approach to ignore the 1982 constitutional Act issue will not make the issue go away but continue to make Burma famous for producing refugees. Vu Ama. everybody loves the slogan word “democracy. Yes. Some children learn to become bullies by imitating their parent’s violent behavior.” I heard many things about you but I didn’t say anything.. My mother was telling us all about her experience at my home yesterday.. As a result of the historic Burmese invasions of Arakan. In that case. Ph. The ruling junta is made mainly of Burmans and Rakhines. some of the villagers were kulas.” (11) Buchanan’s explanation that some Brahmin informants from Arakan called themselves as “Rosawan” and that the Rakhines called the Muslims and the Hindus as “Kulaw. Outside Arakan… Sometimes.. Accessed on November 12. In this endeavor. Rohingya good things: (1) Rohingya people are very courteous. came to the Ukhiya camp.. the offsprings of the Mogh-Portuhuese captured Bengali slaves. a sub-town of Maungdaw Township. which might push us towards untold sufferings or raze the whole village to the ground. A survey was done by Arakan Information Website which gave the readers choice between Muslim Rohingyas or the Burmans as the enemy.) “Francis Buchanon in South East Bengal (1798) His journey to Chittagong. Surprisingly. The aim of this book is to fill in the blanks (the missing dots) that could enable the sluggish democracy movement leadership to move forward. Shwe Kyi Operation—October 1966 10. children will be able to help the more unfortunate ones still in refugee camps languishing their hopeless lives. and their decedents. Your children were born in refugee camps. My chest pain is increasing. We will have real a king when we act like human. xenophobic writer’s continue to propagate that Rohingyas are “Chittagonians. “Muslims escaped by the sea and amalgamated with the locals and the Moghs went to settle in the forest. the xenophobic mentality has reached to a new height during the colonial period that “Muslims were stereotyped in the society as ‘cattle killers’ (referring to the cattle sacrifice festival of Eid Al Adha in Islam). (24) In British colonial records this is a commonly used term for the newly named Rakhines. 957-1430 MONGOLOID MOGH RULE OF ARAKAN Mongoloid invasion and the beginning of “Kula” (Chandra) exodus to North Arakan and Chittagong. something I have to face. “And history tells us that we do not have to go back very far. As a Burmese proverb popular among government supporters recommends.. 1433 Nadir Shah sent General Sindhi Khan with 30. This paper is a detailed review of the claims. Abid Bahar. chauvinism. Kirakani: Look. Thailand. the population of Arakan was reduced by no less than half. on the minorities. we started journey along the dreadful Apawa mountain pass which was. ourselves and develop leadership through respecting each other and making sacrifices.. India. Chittagong. To escape from the continued oppression. Seen in this light. At night.000 Rohingyas were forced out from Burma who were carrying NRC (national Registration Cards) because as a researcher I personally verified their NRC cards in refugee camps in Ukiya Bangladesh. Mabud: Siddiq.” BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 183 What seems to be the problem here? In dehumanizing the Rohingyas. He. all—of the later Rakhine nationalist movements.S.. I have Dara’s sword! Siddiq: What demon mother? What sword? Who is Dara? Amena: (Opens her eyes) what did I do? Siddiq: You were screaming mother! What happened? 154 Dr. Chulalongkorn University. ostensibly to verify their citizenship. and the surviving Rohingyamaas of Burma carrying the unbearable burden letting them go to their journey to the unknown. Large scale Rohingya exodus to Chittagong took place.” and many other towns and districts such as Akyab. Twenty days ago she came to the Maricha Palong refugee camp . Like in Chittagong. Dr.. “It is part of the Mercy of Allah that you deal gently with them. capturing man. Recently. Contrary to Aye Chan’s claim however. But in the Burman-Rakhine general definition.’ Karen Human Rights Group. “The Burmese destruction of Arakan and its policy of demanding slave labor from Arakan for project inside Burma led both to rebellion and large communities of exiles and refugees forming on the other side of the Indian border. Article 5. “Orbituary: The Puppet Master of Burma: Ne Win made his nation what it is today: poor. how could Rohingya’s similarities with the Chittagonians make Rohingyas Chittagonians? It is evident that. Buddhism has been used as a political tool of oppression against minorities. “Ban on Marriages. 30 Nov 2007 09:23:35-0800 http://www. and the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. He himself mentioned that the British census included Arakanese Muslims in some accounts as “Indians” and in some other accounts as “Chittagonians. 92 Dr. Abid Bahar Thursday. in spite of its resources and its beauty. Since 2002. U Salimullah. these assertions “I have Never Heard of the Name Rohingya. Long Live the Rohingya Nation!!!! (Everybody give a round of applause) CHAPTER 11 PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF GROWING UP IN CANADA: THE CASE OF ROHINGYA PEOPLE (The speech was delivered at the Workshop on “Rohingya people of Canada” in Rohingyalish language at the Reception Centre in Kitchner. It is worth noting here that the Kaladan valley was inhabited by the former soldiers of Wali Khan and Sindi Khan. (4) Michael Charney. change that produced the term ‘Rohingya.. Anti-Slavery International would like to inform the Commission that deprivation of civil and political rights in Myanmar also results in denial of economic.. A conference Organized by the Institute of Asian Studies.”(9) What is frustrating to human rights groups is that to avoid controversy neither the military nor the democracy movement leaders will say no outright to the Rohingya’s claims of Burmese citizenship in one-on-one encounters. Thailand. 147) 44 Dr.” “Bengalis.227 Rohingya Genocide in Western Burma .. But when Aye Chan understands this. Rohingya refugees in Thailand and in Malaysia. the soliders of the Bengal Sultan’s army. was sent in 1828 for the administration of Arakan Division. Aye Chan identifies the Rohingyas simply as the “Chittagonians” creating an “Illegal Muslim enclave” in Burma to justify the continued genocide. democracy is about citizenship and the military’s exclusionist model of defining the indigenousness of ethnic groups negates the notion of citizenship. He and his likes made the rohingyanet media sensational by posting allegations but the ultimate victims are us. It is to note that Rohingyas are a racially and religiously different group of Burmese people. Conclusion Hopefully. I was weeping too. By 1935 Burma Act. rape or unlawful arrest. (36)In reality though. In Cox’s Bazar.. Hamdan: Listen.. However. some conscientious Burmans and Rakhines. they lost their religion-Buddhism. Rohingya demonstration all over Arakan leading to mass arrest.. the circumstances could be “fluid” and turn unpredictable into causing genocide. I tried to emerge but I was tired. we see mostly “seasonal migrant workers” went to Arakan from southern Chittagong to work in Arakan. . authoritarian and “democratic” alike. Xenophobic works overlooks Important Information A careful survey of the materials reveals the fact that some of the seemingly academic works were motivated by chauvinistic tendency and are simple works of faulty analogy and hasty generalizations.(20) Rohingya Refugees during Military rule (1962- ) In 1962. a notorious person named Ne Win took over power.. In what is called modern-day slave labor. to respect lives.. Habib Siddiqui. the Persian General who went to Arakan to help restore Arakani king Noromikhala to power. Burma’s Arakan state has even been renamed the Rakine state. All children.. during marriage and at its dissolution. Burma has approximately 135 ethnic groups each with a distinct. (Wassalam.. Rohingyas are at their lowest existence. She was my first early childhood educator. In Japan I met young Rohingya children who wanted to help the elders eat first and then they would eat.. Aye Chan says. you might fell contradictions and alienation and which could be seen as your problems in adaptations. the latter settled in Burma during the British period. 174 Dr. Rohingyas were branded by the government as separatists. Mabud: Ma.” All the new names were derived from Burman-related semi-mythical place names from earlier centuries. 24) As a matter of fact. rich in mineral resources and agriculture. They don’t want us. Ashin Nayaka at the The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom public hearing. but Fatema could find none of her family among them. disproving Aye Chan’s original hypothesis that Rohingyas are the “Illegal Bengalis. July 2002 http://www. We will invite as many Rohingyas as possible.. those Muslims again became active. However.” The beast of Arakan that feeds on xenophobia seems not dead but only battered. These areas had been in the Rakhaing Kingdom for more than two thousand years. If so. his use of this type of assertions in a seemingly academic paper put together in spurious relationships can easily deceive casual readers of Arakan history. We didn’t know how to respond to their crimes.. Francis Buchanan. While Burma’s ethnic leaders discuss these important issues in the world’s foreign capitals in order to determine exactly who the real enemy is. He particularly talks about the xenophobic writer Aye Kyaw BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 49 (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) (42) (43) who helped the military with the latter’s policy of extermination of the Rohingyas. “Influx Viruses” Aye Chan contributed a chapter.. 2006 Burmese democracy movement continues at home and abroad. 153. According to this interpretation.. 1852 Second Anglo-Burmese war and the annexation of Pegu. Her son had been treated by camp medics for his injured foot.. Professor Zakaria. Here.These were the earliest Muslim settlers and their community in Arakan did not seem to be large in number. org/obl/docs/KICKEDTOBURMA-Final-3.” ever since its independence.” Arakan Rohingya National Organization. with a big problem drawing international attention.A. Rohingya people’s ancestors had settled in Arakan from the eighth century.. the Mohamuni. (3) The strategy they take is as if they are the supporters of the democracy movement. Surprisingly.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australians Ramayana. and otherwise terrorized into submitting to a slow. To order additional copies of this book. pre-Islamic cultural heritage.. As for their lineage to a Kshatrya Royality surely is not about the Buddhist Arakan of the Moghs but it must be the Chakma’s historic association with the Hindu influenced Chandras with Kshatrya strata that was eventually absorbed into a Buddhist Mogh kingdom.” (1) Given this multiethnic makeup. Also in Willem van Schendel (Ed. 2001.php?hidDate=2008-0603&hidType=HIG&hidRecord=0000000000000000202967 . come! I will take you to a safer place. rector of Mandalay University and former professor of history. It appears that Arakan lost its beauty when it replaced the art of civilization for its barbarity in the Bay.ch/huricane/huricane. ultranationalist activities have been constantly on the rise. He sees democracy as only applicable to his own group and for the other he provides excuses for the military to even commit genocide. I would like to thank Mira Malidzanovic from the Reception Centre and Sunanda Sachdev from YMCA and the local Rohingya people: Nur Hasim. This invasion also led to a large scale influx of people who were the followers of the king to settle in Bengal. in the village. And more painful was the groans of some Rohingya women wailing terribly (as I could understood later on) after being persecuted by the forces en bloc in the “Lawadong Army Camp”. who lived with the Rohingya people in Arakan and in Burma all their lives are of the claim that they have never heard of the name “Rohingya. the Mogh population that settled in the Cox’s Bazar area. Burma has one hundred thrity five recognized ethnic groups but Rohingyas are not included among them. Habibullah estimates “About 1000. To them both the Burmans (Burmese military) and the Rohingyas BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 125 (the “Kulas”) are enemies.. but fortunately now such people can run but cannot hide because their actions have drawn international attention. Where did the term “kula” originated from? Kala is a Pali word…. and children into bamboo enclosures and burn them alive in hundreds. July 2002 http://www.. to destroy all or part of a group. But the Muslim agriculturists from Northern Arakan. .” America Burma Institute. and thus deprived these poor people of the property. Amena: I feel bad for the mothers in refugee camps in Chittagong. 26 Jun 1997 01:56:00 http://www. Indeed… and as they were separated from the group on the top of a little hill. “Poll: In history.177 Section 2: Who Is Who of the Anti-Rohingya in Arakan . it is the ANC that is dividing the Arakan into skeptical. one that will really rule over us.. Thes latters are the civilian collaborators of the military and are the hidden enemy BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 205 of the democracy movement. An example of Persian is ““ne mitounam” means “I can’t” and in Rohingyalish. says.. These make his research incomplete.’Fri.” Aye Chan says. public officials or private individuals. Those that survived. contemporary Rakhine elites even adapted adapted the Burmese used name biloo as being the Rakkines. advisers and intellectuals. Mabud: True. the situation within the democracy movement leadership is complicated by the presence of ex-military infiltrators. Religious and Linguistic Minorities. . Miloon Kothari. but now you have a very big country. They say it is their country… 166 Dr. “Mother! You wanted to say something?” I asked: “What is it.burmeserohingya. “We remain steadfast in our commitment to the freedom in our country and the freedom in our own hearts. the towns were deserted and overgrown with jungle. the uprooted people in the north of Arakan seems not the “Chittagonians” but the displaced Rohingyas from the south of Arakan.20) While Aye Chan recognizes the 1942 massacre. He distinctly recalled the screaming of women from buildings at the camp. here he seems to be addressing not an educated audience but his ultra-nationalist Arakanese-Burmese exclusive club. The Burmese army increased from a mere few thousand in Aung San’s time to a force of 500. she lived in a refugee camp and after decades was lucky to 126 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 127 reach to a country called Kanada. Shaista Khan. Rohingya properties were confiscated. thousands have fled to neighbouring countries. fundamentalist Buddhism is used as a Rakhine political ideology. They have been excluded from the nation-building process in Myanmar and the military regime has implemented policies of exclusion and discrimination against this group aimed at encouraging them to leave the country. in the former Yugoslavia—there was the ethnic cleansing. He also noticed special characteristics about Rohingya people that they are a people with the culture of caring for the elderly and the sick.. and some others in their show of liberalism simply neglect the use of the name Rohingya in Arakan history. Planetarium Station 2005). The Arakan was no exception. Rakhines arrived from central Burma with Theravada Buddhism during the 10th century.. On April 7. 90 Dr. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed. not only the rank and file. He testified that in the Chakma ballet the above type of “Mogh oppression” is mentioned. was assassinated along with his entire team.freerohingyacampaign. what Jacques P. Abid Bahar areas would be in the newly created Rakhaing State under the new Federal Constitution?”(2) Aye Kyaw writes so inconsistently. Hamadan: You called me “bastard.. Kanada is the best of all. This time Arakan becomes a province of Bengal.. it would be well known to everyone. you Rohingyas will always be together. … The contemporary problem in Arakan is a racial problem. Abid Bahar Rangoon University makes strong recommendations on Rohingyas as ethnic group and bonafide citizen of Arakan. knife and other weapons was berthed at Rakhine Khayan Khali village of Maungdaw Township and unloaded all the weapons at the village. however.. 233 234 Dr.. The last one being Tamada Raja ruled upto 1783.. The xenophobic king invaded Arakan as a mission to bring change from an Indianized population into an Asian variety and helped settle Tabeto-Burman Buddhist population. It appears that the problem in Arakan is deep enough to go away sooner. I.. there are other minorities faced similar problems..net/ current_affairs/0090. The biggest challenge before the Muslim leadership seems to be to learn to fight the common local and international stereotypes propagated against Muslims… (See Appendix #9.. Mongols under Kublai Khan invaded the Pagan Kingdom. In trying to justify his point he used the qualifier.. part 11. The Rakhines (also known as the Moghs. Arakan became sadly memorable for the tragic massacre of the Moghul prince Shah Suja and his entire family by the Arakanese king Sandathudamma.172 Rohingyas took shelter in Chittagong. My general observation of Aye Chan’s work is that no doubt he has a hypothesis. Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society: A case Study of Inter Ethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas.. an elected leader of the Burmese people remains under house arrest. Puran Bisungri. 1995). (2005) where Rohingya are being demonized as being the “Influx Viruses.. Anuwar: Thanks Mabud.193 Chapter 15: Appendices Appendix 1: Appendix 2: Appendix 3: Appendix 4: Appendix 5: Appendix 6: Burma’s Missing Dots . Despite that this region for its past history. self-styled pro-democracy writers such as Aye Chan. . old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. Rohingyas are ethnically a different people from the rest of the Burmese Muslims. http://sanooaung. I had visited Rohingya refugee camps in Ukhya with my students and collected information on them. These creative things are happening in the Middle East. Well. In course of time these people even have developed a language which is not even comprehensible to the Chittagonians.” Amena: No. and I have been to Canada for close to 30 years. and the rare payment for compulsory labor is usually cancelled out by increase of arbitrary taxation. either alone or in community with others and in public or private. there was an Arab Sultanate in Chittagong. People asked. Your children might face the same thing more and more as they grow into teenagers. Young Poori was very happy here. the UN Conference on Minorities and Stateless People in Geneva in 2007. it is a typical reflection of the contemporary state of Burmese scholarship on ethnic minorities. is also not helpful to Rohingyas since most inhabit the border regions where Burmese is rarely spoken.” (7) They with Burmese military help follow Burma’s raciallly exclusivist policy (enacted in the 1982 constitution) which deprives the Rohingya Muslims of their right to citizenship and deny the share of participation in the political arena of Arakan. Reflecting on the meaning of “in part.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=20&Itemid=30 Also see Muhammad Enanmul Haq and Abdul Karim Shahitya Visharad’s work Bengali Literature in the Court of Arakan 1600-1700. The xenophobic writings. 36-40.. Abdul Karim. Dec 6. Now that the xenophobic Burmese military rules Arakan. and conducive to.. Historically speaking. I know when you first arrived in Canada. It is unfortunate that neither the British colonial historians nor any modern Western scholars of Arakan raised this important issue. I know it is too late. curly hair and dark skin for their racial features were degraded to the status of subhuman or the untouchables…wordpress. of course not.. Aye Chan the Linguist Aye Chan relates. i.org . if both didn’t inspire me.. political or other opinion.” When Hafez left Tongbazar with 1500 villagers about February 20. “Influx Viruses.. and his family land has been occupied by soldiers in a camp. there are at least 700. I know many people now complain about Kirakini. On a cloudy day if I couldn’t see her. from the Indian Hindu Chandras. for.. Aung San worked with the country’s leaders to promote a western model of a federal state. not the Fascists.(10) After the British conquest.. she is in another country. I was told by a friend that he saw my mother here.000 Rohingya are living illegally in Bangladesh without access to protection or humanitarian assistance. Aye Chan says: “It is certain that hundreds of Muslim inhabitants of southern Arakan fled north. their power is rooted in the deep racism that has permeated Burmese society since its beginnings. However. I am sorry! Kalam: Aunty! Have some breakfast. (21) M. Such reactionary alliances launched from India by the fundamentalist Hindus from India for a Hindu-Buddhist alliance against Muslims resulting “from mid 1930s there appeared to be a succinct polarization between Buddhists and Muslims of Burma. . However. Shaheb do for us. but not Burmese military personnel he labels the Rohingyas as “illegal. a Wa says. and when it had almost reached the middle of the river. Episode 2 is about Rohingya’s pain of saying farewell to the motherland and. from Chittagong to Demagri. said a businessman from Maungdaw town.. father-in-law.. They have shown in particular that when we talk about the presence of Muslims in Arakan and the existence of an early Muslim community. it is causing massive refugee movements to neighboring countries. stop that. Anuwar.This Rohingya and Chakma style to place no before a verb is from Persian language. But for that. On the front page was a flashing red book cover with the title. and Sahara. There could be some occasional bad treatments and exceptions.. You have some bustard Bengalis here who will not agree with me. the Rohingyas migrated to Burma after 1826. the elected democracy movement leader continues to remain under house arrest in Burma away from her family for years. “In the middle of the seventeenth century the Muslim community grew because of the assignment of Bengali slaves in variety of the workforces in the country. Struggle for Democracy and Law and Order Suffice to say. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 221 According to the Constitution. Abid Bahar was real. Interestingly. using rebellious slogans (British Library.”(23) In this review of Aye Chan’s essay it is clear that Aye Chan remained thoroughly prejudiced and only tried to rearrange the Arakanese prejudices against the Rohingyas. We also see during the 16th and 17th century even a “massive deportations of Bengalis” from lower Bengal to Arakan caused in the increase in the “Kula” people. living in Myanmar [Burma]. “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire. as the waiting game for democracy continues.” What is the purpose in the use of this paragraph from Fazlur Rahman to explain the religious trends in Arakan? My research on Aye Chan’s work reveals his lack intellectual honesty.. fowls. This is evident in a book written by U Shw zan and Dr. these are some abuses of the fundamental teachings of the great humanist tradition of the Buddha.(23) Habib Siddiqui identifies some of the major armed operations of intimidation against the Rohingya people. 2006 (IPS). there is no king in Kanada Amena: What did you say? There is no king? Siddiq: I heard there is a Queen who exists on dollar bill only.. so much so that they are like “viruses. The International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) states: “Every child has the right to acquire a nationality. The light was put off. ten percent representation in all public bodies. “This theory doesn’t make sense semantically. Malaysia. resulting in the rise of the many non-Bengali settlements in BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 203 Chittagong. for example fan the flames of division by emphasizing the aspects of the status quo that benefit them personally.” It constantly changed hand between Monipuri.. 1995. refugees!” I am not a refugee! Iman: Who are you? Kirakani: After the military attack.org/index. the fish of the river could not be eaten due to the rotten corpse. 2001. But to a historian. 1981 Chris Lewa. most of them. The spokesman of the Muslim League advocated for fair share of government jobs. 2005. Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society: A case Study of Inter Ethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas. After the attempt was failure… the Portuguage called it Rakan and in English Arakan closer to the Muslim term. an unpublished M.wikipedia. We should choose those our leaders who made the most sacrifices. some Rohingyas. .) This has become one of their only means of survival and revolutionary students protest in vain. etc. Chakmas are darker in complexion compared to the Moghs so are the Rohingyas. That was in Arakan in 1666….. clothing.shtml U Khin Maung Saw. the other group of Moghs call themselves Marmma (Meha-Vurma. political. ceasing of properties.. But in the above book. Research shows that it comes originally from the common reactionary stereotypes spread by Western missionaries and the early Hindu Mohashoba fundamentalist campaign in Burma against Muslims during the early part of the 20th century. (5) Despite their history of long settlement and now being indigenous to the land.. 100. Ne Win… Given such a disturbing climate in Arakan after such a destruction by the Burmese king. consisting of the special intent to destroy. In reply to a question about the Rohingyas’ citizenship in Burma. “Those who do not get creative with their pain and passions most often stay stuck in the past and sadly do not make as much contributions to their own lives or to other’s lives.questia.Today. organizing seminars and conferences? It is an intellectual investment our young leaders did in the Rohingya heritage through their hard work. The aging military dictators are being replaced by a younger generation of military dictators. History of the Rohingyas.. “ . Ltd.. May 2002. Bahar continues to write on ethnicity and race relations in Burma.” He also said. probably a Rohingya (as quoted by Buchanan).. (6) He was an orthodox Buddhist and anti-Muslim. to escape Burmese invasions. Abid Bahar of Democratic Development in Burma and the Rohingya Issue” held in Tokyo in 2007 shows his self confessed collaboration with the Burmese army. These xenophobes deny Rohingya citizenship.S.000 solders to help restore Noromi—kla as the king. There were only a few families left there. why Chittagonians living in a relatively peaceful region in the north would migrate to Arakan. democratic organization that respects minority rights. There were about 20 to 25 soldiers at the river who began taking money. what is perfidious is that Aye Chan’s cleverly constructed work can raise the eye browse of casual readers on the question of the indigenousness of Rohingya people. everybody was enjoying Ha du du game.. agreed with the Rohingya historians that the Rohingyas have lived in Rakhine since the eigth century A.”(10) The stereotype that Islam was instrumental in the BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 189 destruction of Buddhism in India and in Afghanistan and now a threat to Burma is a major problem Muslims face today. swords. Thursday. like most refugee people. anybody will like you if you have some education from here. Beginning of Chakma exodus from Arakan 1044-77 Rohingyas (Arakani Hindus and Muslims) left Arakan for Chittagong. But there are always solutions to problems. Then the late night call. I met and became friends of many big and small Rohingya leaders and people both in Bangladesh and in all over the world. national or social origin.. In 1824 a decisive war between the Burmese and the British took place resulting in the British occupation of Arakan. but together.. 15) 56 Dr. land confiscation and forced evictions. It is interesting to note that Burmese nationalism first began with the formation of the Young Men’s Buddhist Association. so that you can pretend.. 1406 Burmese King Min Khaung Yaza invades Arakan and Noromi-kala the king of Arakan along with his followers took asylum at Gaur the court of Bengal sultan Gaisuddin Azam Shah. poets. Zohra was released after they discovered she too couldn’t respond to their eramal needs any longer. to make his case against the racially different but Burmese born Rohingya citizens.. 2007. A conference Organized by the Institute of Asian Studies. dates back to the 8th century. in this case in the Buddhist environment. intensified and restrictions on their movement. A peaceful heart makes a peaceful person. many Rohingyas must have gone back to reclaim their ancestral homes..(3) Historical sources document that from the middle of the 8th century a small minority of Muslim population was beginning to emerge in Arakan. and glorifies Buddhism as the only important tradition in Arakan. Burmese invasion of Arakan.” 108 Dr. we have snowing in Kanada but in Arakan now it must be summer. it should be a peaceful and prosperous nation. Moshe Yegar wrote that when the British administration was withdrawn to India in 1942 the Arakanese hoodlums began to attack the Muslim villages in southern Arakan and the Muslims fled to the north where they took vengeance on the Arakanese in Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships (Yegar 1972:67). and therefore brutes/ fundamentalists. a more liberal Buddhist tradition was also followed in Bengal before it was converted to Islam.. what Muslims should do to overcome these challenges. tried to wipe it said) Then what happened? Mabud: Well. 7). The armed forces are on constant alert in the battle against ethnic groups and their allies. many of them got mixed with the local people of Bangladesh and started leading a gypsy life here and there as undocumented refugees and many of them crossed to different countries like India.) “Francis Buchanon” in South East Bengal (1798) His journey to Chittagong. She had wrinkles. (summer 2005. he remained silent on the Rohingya exodus during the same event. php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=105 R. The Burmese had never used coins and hence he had no model of his own. “Racism in Burma: Aye Chan’s Enclave revisited. “Burmese Invasion of Arakan and the Rise of Non Bengali Settlements in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts. Rohingya. it might turn into a full blown genocide.. Mayu Operation—October 1952-53 05. And for the following 2/3 years. who gave you the name “Kirakini?” It is not a Rohingya name. This seems to be true. In addition. to heighten the fear of the Rohingyas to the Burmese people. The captured men and women were as if like war booty to them. is both an extension of Burma and of Bengal and the Rakhines and the Rohingyas are the expressions of this historic reality. 1972:67 Mohammad Ashraf Alam. and Maybon etc have been discussed about the Rohingya matter how will they drive or finish the Rohingya community from northern Arakan. looking at me with delight.. he and his entire team were assassinated… As a consequence. Arakan Liberation Party (ALP). We slowed down. Amena in her dreams screams. Thanks! Maung: God bless your mother! I came to tell you this. we moved from our Akyab locality to further North. the identity Rohingya nation is their only survival design…) Siddiq: We are talking about Arakan. Habib Siddiqui. Abid Bahar Rohingya Solidarity Organization (RSO) Arakan. the two of them ate rice only three times.C. “It is certain that hundreds of Muslim inhabitants of Southern Arakan fled northward. Aye Chan wrote dehumanizing books and articles. Dara is a very tall and a brave man and fought with Aye and Salim kept Maung busy chasing.htm http://en. This is similar to some of the Rakhines from Chittagong who went back to settle in Arakan. the democracy movement leadership has been searching for both friends and enemies but has failed to find either.. the present research found Rohingyas only as any other human beings demanding protection from the Burmese democracy movement leaders and from the international community to live their lives in the land of their forefathers. Aye Chan’s present work is important to consider for its unique version of inter-racial relations of some significance that defy academic understanding of Rohingya history and culture.. Aye Chan in his work gives us the notion that Rohingyas are some radical elements and their presence is as if “viruses” in Arakan who are required to be destroyed or will eventually destroy the Arakanese Burmese people. “Any excuse will serve a tyrant. In Bengal.” (p. On 20 Dr. Abid Bahar Article 1..jrank.. “The Plight of Burma’s Stateless. 30 Nov 2007 09:23:35-0800 http://www.” “When Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (raa) conquered Jerusalem.” “Sindi Khan’s followers settled in Mrohaung and its suburban areas.” Michael Charney explained ethnic and ethnonyms. and subjugated them as the Kulas. what Zohra Begum said is this: On a cold Monday. McGill University. I have information that some Rakhines are using his name to spread anti Rohingya propaganda on the net.. genocide is no longer the internal business of individual national governments. he identified the sins of its grand parents he remembered who allegedly caused trouble to the wolf in mudding water. in fact. local lawless Rakhines tend to say that they are not to blame but simply carrying out the military’s order.. We have to be active. including article 7 of the Convention of the Rights of the Child and article 9 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women..” (p. (National Library. biblio. Leider. Since.. Among these varieties of people. be gentle. while other surveys found the minority Muslims.” (p. During the period of my research over the past three decades. Rohingya rights were being violated and the rule by fear and force continued.D. Some Rohingyas returned to Arakan.. I saw many old and disabled men and women falling down dying while climbing the rugged hazardous mountain and most painful was the scene of the groaning pregnant women while giving birth to their baby in that dense forest. The Arakanese xenophobic hoodlums began to incite people with the slogan.. an unpublished M. Rohingyas settled in southern Chittagong in localities were called “Roai Para. “Muslim mercenaries. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 139 Mabud: I don’t know when this will stop. Burma’s fledgling democracy also suffered a premature death. “Influx Viruses”. shall enjoy the same social protection. The xenophobic works embolden the military in its rule through fear. so as to take up action against its targeted minority. Leafing through the pages of the infamous xenophobic book: Influx Viruses written by Arakani intellectuals.”(11) It appears that long years of military rule created authoritarian institutions and a deeply ingrained tradition of intolerance toward minorities.” BANGKOK.. this event was known to the Rohingya Muslims as the “Karbalai Arakan. As a consequence.. As a result of the prosecution of Nazi leaders as war criminals. Mabud: I don’t know what to do about it. We have to organize more International conferences…” Pp. Hamadan: Were you a refugee in Thailand? Karakani: Yes. tell us about my father. it is imperative on the genuine democracy movement leaders to separate the fake democrat Monks like Ashin Nayaka along with his team of ultra-nationalists be expelled from Buddhist sacred places and they be referred to the international tribunal for their crimes against humanity. We have developed our culture of respecting elders. the Rakhines.. After cross checking the dates and names in recorded history. Also in Michael Charney. The country has become the servant of the army. one also needs to be educated. “This. This is more important in a military ruled hostile environment in Burma. and your brothers left you. Therefore. they would drive men. the country was a scarcely populated area. Once initiated this continued intellectual process will slowly undermine division in favor of consensus among the people of the Rohingya nation. when such a Rohingya goes back to Arakan to reclaim his property. .html U Shwe Zan and Aye Chan. because the value of human dignity is taught in school. Rakhine explanation to the Rohingya language is simply that Rohingyas are Chittagonian people. glorifies the Rakhine past but didn’t even for once mentions the term Rohingya or Muslims or the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. It is no accident of history that based on a similar type of intolerant attitude. (4) “Some of the ANC member parties are terrorist organizations (e. till the British period. through the advent of military rule in the 1960s until the present day. “Many Rakhines. Mother.” However. Union Military Police (UMP) Operation—1955-58 08. Buddha’s teaching emphasized on self-enlightenment and self-liberalization similar to Islam’s jihadi Akber. True revolutionaries like Dr. a nation is an “imagined community” with shared identities. humorous but racially and culturally diverse people aspiring toward a multicultural society and in the former. Nurul and Maung silent for a while) it was good to see all your friends came to support you the other day. Shahid bhai: We will do something about it.. In order to be effective. Now we took a different turn.” (p. I saw mountains around me but not my mother.000 for a country of only 50 million people. showing an attitude of internal arrogance through his pen.. beating their heads again and again against the bank of the river. half of Africa dried up to become the uninhabitable Sahara desert. Rohingyas originated from various sources. they would lose their earned privileges. It appears that their common suffering made them united as a people. to the end that every individual and every organ of society. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)” Here he cites Fazlur Rahman’s Islam. HINDOO AND BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES by A. The British categorized all the Burmese Muslims including the indigenous Rohingyas of Arakan as the Indian Muslims. (5) To get rid of the stigma that Muslims are a “dangerous people. (1) Men and women of full age. Yahoo group. Historically speaking. Burma is a very intolerant society. conscience and religion..(5) The Western media primarily ascribe Burma’s problems to its prolonged military dictatorship. shrines. Abid Bahar address them. According to the census of 1901 only 4. Even more disturbing is the phenomenon of imposters. Naga-Min (King Dragon) Operation—February 1978-79 (resulting in exodus of some 300.com/view. some important Arakanese ministers. 104 Dr. To most Arakani scholars.1 (Spring 2003). (Father Jakaria and sister Poori Banu were killed in Burma’s Arakan state where Rohingya’s original home is located). know I have been working with the Rohingya people and on Burma for the past 31 years. It says they have strong need to dominate others and usually have little empathy for their targets. and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.. Contrary to the current trend. to Chittagong in Bangladesh. Bangkok.. At about 10 pm. She was already dead.. In this allegation. “Dear Almighty! We are leaving many of our helpless near and dear ones at Your hand. asp# TEHELKA—Friday. http://www. after the British separation of Burma from India.rakhapura. I don’t understand why this person has to be so deceptive… Nagas and Chins don’t make these BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 33 groups “outsiders” in Burma. it is true. Due to these partitions. “[A]lthough some prominent Burmese Muslims such as M. 2007.” http://bangladesh-web.. but due to its negative use as being the pirates in the Bay. . Jewish… They were carrying what Hafez described as Chinese G3 and G1 rifles. at Columbia University in New York. 1973 Formation of R. Faroque.. the language was believed to be influenced by Rakhine or the Burmese language. to be social. Article 4. (6) The most lucrative job for the average Burman or Rakhine is that of a career soldier. Hanif: How did you escape Arakan? Mabud: It’s a long story… Burmese democracy movement leadership is fighting for a system like this. good idea! Siddiq: Can I say more? He needs somebody’s help. a proto Bengali language which was continued to be practiced in Arakan among the Rohingyas and the Diagnet Chakmas of Arakan and in Chittagong among the Chakmas and the Chittagonians till today. I know my mother. who are Mongoloid by race but speaking a non Burmese dialect. thesis. In this continuity of Burmese xenophobic nationalist tradition. So I have heard the name “Rohingya” many times. unfortunately even some Rakhine monks have been seen as the leading figures in the anti-Rohingya agitation. The word democracy is so popular in Burma that Than Shaw even calls his version “disciplined democracy.A. the military rulers have virtually declared the Rohingyas as stateless people in their own homeland where they have been living centuries after centuries. The woman looked different.rohingya. speak no evil. Aditya Dewan. foreigners and ethnic groups will take over Burma.” Forkan: It makes sense. at the airport.. 40 The above chart of Rohigya and Chakma vocabularies were drawn from my consultation and verification of ideas with Rohingya. On 25th Sept..” James M. in New Delhi. I remember a Bangladeshi woman from the nearby village gave us some food. Actually. History of the Rohingyas. 2007) Endnotes (1) Arakan Information website. the myth of biloo is very much present in Theraveda Buddhism imported from Sri Lanka to Burma. Later..org/wiki/Ramayana. http://en. Also see Abid Bahar’s Aye Chan’s Enclave Revisited. To me what is happening in Arakan is to link us as the Indian migrants which is not true but is purely racism. “The military came to power because of its disagreement over a constitutional matter. realizing the trouble that we will be the next to be picked up by the local goons and the military.. In my trip to Bangladesh.. I am ok! I have yet to organize other things.. “Muslim Influence in Arakan and the Muslim Names of Arakanese Kings: A Reassment. the year the British occupied Arakan. a language spoken by the Muslim people of North Western Burma which shows the language is also closer to Chittagonian Bengali than the Rakhine or the Burmese. in 1784 Burmese king invaded Arakan and the final blow to the once beautiful Arakan came to an end.. it has instigated many communal riots between the Rakhines and Rohingyas. 2005. U Razzak.php?option=com_content&tas k=view&id=866&Itemid=36. a land of the belu (Rakkhas). What happened to aunty? Mabud: While in Bangladesh. where is my sword? I am going to destroy you. the impact of the Burmese invasion and its result in the rise of Arakanese Rohingya population in Chittagong. dialogue with the other requires patience.org/wiki/Islam_in_Burma Ibid Ibid Ibid Crackdown on Burmese Muslims. So don’t ask if people did enough for you. They are now identified as a stateless people. if Buddha actually visited Burma.. “A symbiotic coexistence has so far been inconceivable because of the political climate of mistrust and fear between the two races and the policy of the military junta. how come Muslims remained so backward compared to the Rakhines. On the question of how to make Arakan great again. So in your newly found freedom.. No doubt. (1) Dialogue: This is obligatory to the faithful Muslims because the Quran says. I will divide my speech in two parts: PART 1: Problems and Prospects of Growing up in Canada: How to be a good Rohingya Canadan Before you came to Canada. Kirkini is a swindler. seen from another angle. in Burma. In the present Chakaria Thana of Southern Chittagong.” In this hypocritical stand by them as refugees. it has its religious dimension as well. the racially dark skinned Dravadian population moved to the south. Charney. Burma is a vast country of peasants and fisherman of multi ethnic and racial backgrounds. Kirakini.. They may be deluded. But.. tolerance and friendship among all nations. Arakan was a very beautiful land. Habibullah. attributed by Buddhists who recorded early conflicts between the first and the second wave of Mranma immigrants into the littoral.. “Let them go!” “Let them go!” They began chasing them away. 86 Dr. We had our villages. the Bangladesh government registered over 300. 1978. London… ok! Hamadan: No one is calling you a refugee. It was the beginning of a large Rohingya community and culture in Arakan. in 1978 an officially recorded 207. Burmese Invasions of Arakan Among the many Burman invasions. Abid Bahar.” 72 Dr. Arakanese citizens have to realize that Arakan is no more a medieval kingdom.” Rakhines used to be called the “Moghs. the Abbot or Head of Buddhist Monastry of Narathiwa. restricted access to medical care.. Stephan van Galen.. 2006 (IPS).” Burma’s Misstep towards Modern Democracy Burma is a medium-sized country..7.200-204 to relate the Rohingyas as being influenced by the Wahabis and the Egyptian brotherhood. It is ganging up on the opponents by ridiculing them in forums. The process of dispossession still continues. 40-57. Portuguese offsprings.. and Major Tun Kyaw Oo. As we came to the end of the wrangle. Aung San Suu Kyi is a great leader fighting for democracy in Burma. the settlers were mostly the soldiers of the Muslim army. Abid Bahar Amena: Ok. In addition to providing a survey of xenophobic literature. There is no answer to this type of crime. see Marwaan Macan-Markar. It is good that we are safe here. a Barrister-at-Law. In the role of a historian.. In the words of Benedict Anderson. Nurul: Once married. 2007. Also see Chris Lewa. in a paper written in Japanese. where they had been receiving military training to fight the British. Amena: I don’t feel like eating anything.. in that case I can not help your ignorance.wikipedia. Here the racial difference is apparent.” Faroque: So.. 1972 Memorandum to General Ne Win by Rohingya leaders to stop deterioration of Rohingya situation. Someone was crying in pressed voice and someone weeping in silence. Religious and Linguistic Minorities. “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms. especially in 1942. Leider. See for the Rohingalish language.” If you simply praise the child for no reason. The Arakani princes Echhin or Yaingcrong (cradle song) of Fadu Min Nyo during the reign of Ba Saw hu (1459-1482) A..” 2009 Tension between Burma and Bangladesh on the demarcation of the sea boundary is mounting due to the following bilateral irritants: Rohingya refugee issue. under conditions of the essential defenselessness and helplessness of the victims. . but they did spring from Burmese society and they have succeeded in gaining and holding power over it. Additionally… You have done more harm to our nation than the Rakhines did. women and children into bamboo enclosures and burn them alive by the hundreds.” From the above it seems that the old maxim “knowledge is power. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 157 Amena: I don’t joke with you. (the name Cox’s is from an English official who helped settle the Moghs of Burma) shouldn’t also be qualified to be Bangladeshi citizens. Aye Chan also ignored few other details. It says. she is not worried to invest She spreads seeds wisely all around for a future havest A Chin woman says. Ministry of Culture. I submitted my proposal that those people who appeared in the Inquest (census) of King Bodawpaya taken in the 1880s ought to be regarded as ethnic minorities.. do everything to block Rohingya leader’s participation in Burma’s ethnic nationalities’ programs quietly asserting the statement “I have never heard of the name Rohingya. The army is the servant of the country. the increase in Muslim population could be attributed to the fact that Rohingyas living in agricultural societies had practiced polygamous marriages that must have led to an increase in the child birth which was not the case with the Rakhines. e. and its Buddhist heritage. a xenophobic military whose collaborators create “fear” and use “force” to rule the nation.. 37:3. including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief. who first inspired me to take up the project on the Rohingya people of Burma. 1885 Third Anglo-Burmese war and the annexation of upper Burma. the Cham Muslims suffered. It appears that the contradictions in his claims are clouded by his willful omission of the Rohingya side of the story.” He claims himself as a Burmese democracy movement leader. This was. During the period of Burmese invasion.”(5) “ANC regards the people who lived in Arakan before the British annexation of Burma in 1824 as indigenous.” (p. Chandras were racially and linguistically Indo-Semitic and spoke a language similar to Chittagonian dialect. I felt the same way as you felt for your mother. (28) Banglanari. In the same year.” the bloodshed in Arakan. this massive depopulation cannot be attributed solely to the Rakhine migration to Chittagong. “Keep moving. intellectuals like Aye Kyaw’s and the other writings were also hypocritical and aimed at creating xenophobia among the Burmese population. now forming an “enclave” near Bangladesh border. 26th August 1660 Shah Suja… people tend to look for enemies. inheritance and divorce..” being “Chittagonian Bengalis. I was with them.. that . The end of Mogh control of Chittagong and piracy in lower Bengal led an “incredible rejoicing of Bengal. Is that my mother? Yes. The name Rohingya was adapted by these people from various origins as a survival mechanism. 22) Surprisingly. 80 Dr. Surely. It was a heart-rending scene that people can hardly witness. 2006 (IPS). To remove the traces of Rohingya existence in Arakan.In Arakan and Chittagong. Like you on my way to Canada. the importance of the slave and rice trade. In addition. hot-tempered. Partly as a result of these tragic circumstances. he more added. Chakma and Persian speaking people. they are only decoits. a far more fruitful line of inquiry is important to ask questions about the circumstances and conditions that keep the army in power..” There are other ones as individuals and groups: Shwe Zan Aung. in this work he seems to be addressing/ inciting people that Rakhine Burmese “… Aunty blessed us. The few Rohingya returnees to Arakan were almost always identified as Chittagonians and invariably put in jail as foreigners. the soldiers opened fire on the boats behind his. 2006 March—Nay Pyi Taw—the new capital hosts its first official event.” “During the seven years of their operation. but speaking a Chandra—Chittagonian language even felt threatned by the xenophobic invasion.. however. such a change by the Rohingyas raises alarm amongst the ultranationalist Rakhines. Special appreciation is due to Dr. Noromi-kala. The Moghal historian Shiahabuddin Talish noted that only the Portuguese pirates sold their captives and that the Arakanese employed all of their prisoners in agriculture and other kinds of services (Talish 1907:422). or for the purpose of exercising power with weapons. He was trying to bring ethnic harmony through dialogue with ethnic minorities but the entire team of democracy leaders including Aung San was assisinated by powerful quarters who sought to control Burma by force. As in India. laptop doesn’t come with a brain. They base their rule on conspiracy. Ne Win made his nation what it is today: poor. .” (p. He says.. “they” in Chakma is “onora” and Rohingya is also “onora. Yoger claims that during this time the Arakani Muslim migration to Chittagong was at 20. In 1431 General Wali Khan removes Noromi Kla and rules Arakan.. It led to the birth of Rohingya tragedy. one common strategy seen among the anti-Rohingya Rakhine intelligentsia was that it almost invariably portrays the Rohingyas as Muslim “extremists. many Arakanese fled to British Bengal.. the Red Cross and members of Amnesty International… (2) The Indian-descended Muslims live mainly in Rangoon. himself as an educationist. due to such preaching by powerful xenophobic preachers like Ashin Nayaka. Also see Aye Kyaw. Some Rakhine leaders and intellectuals like Dr. Mon. http://www. But he continues.7. Endnotes: (1) Quoted in SAJAI JOSE. “Humanity Gone Amok. “As a born Arakanese [I am as a Rakhine author] is obliged to write the true story of the so-called “Rohingyas. master.” Who are these people? He said: “We have an army coup. “Furthermore. Arakan becomes a province of Bengal. “When the British occupied Arakan. Such shipwrecks were recorded at about the time when Arakani Chandra king Mahat-Sendaya ascended the throne in 788 A. Mone-thone Operation—October 1954 06. so he is fighting against the Rohingyas with the mask of the devil. Read even Martin Smith’s “The Muslim “Rohingyas” of Burma who says Rohingyas are the natives of Arakan. If you use corporal punishment. and food insecurity is deliberately created to induce flight to Bangladesh. But to prove it.. sex. According to him the king and the people both were of Indian origin.. I went home tired. increased the desolation.. USA) and Kanda University of International Studies. it is not that there are no Burmese leaders with strength and foresight. there are likely to be some unintended imperfections.) Francis Buchanon in South East Bengal (1798) His journey to Chittagong. Abid Bahar Arakan is a leader of the genocide of intimidation who is directly involved with the army to provide the details of the Rohingya extermination.257 Appendix 12: A Poem . did you give her something to eat. Calcutta: The Bengal Secretariate Book Depot.” This. Karakini: My mother! (Everybody laughs) Altaf: (Very loudly) Ha ha. but maintained utmost secrecy. but those of the three kings who sought to keep Burma together through their genocidal rule. 1978 After international agencies investigation of documents carried by the refugees proving them as Burmese citizens.. Formerely high—yield peddy fields of the fertile Kalandan and Lemro river valleys germinated nothing but wild plants for many years.kaladanpress.. racial or religious groups.. The religion changes from Mohayana into Hinayana or Theraveda Buddhism.” in this case help the military continue its genocide in Arakan.” http://www.. Also Willem van Schendel (ed. 17) 62 Dr. Islam in Arakan: An interpretation from the Indian perspective: History and the Present. Saiful: Mabud bhai. many Rakhines and Rohingyas had settled in the relatively peaceful and fertile southern Chittagong. Thakhin Soe’s Red Flag Communists took advantage of the misunderstanding between U Seinda and AFPFL. This should be done by the leadership both inside Arakan and in abroad. Aye Chan finds the Rohingyas as “Chittagonians” and bulged the Rohingyas with Indian migrants who migrated to Rangoon in Burma during the British period… saw the election result nullified and the repression continue. 23 24 Dr. I am not only educated. alienation and panic was not only amongst Muslims from Myu frontier. This is an unwritten rule followed here. . Illegal small arms trade. Dr. it is not the example and the BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 121 inspiration of the founders of Mrauk U dynasty that makes Arakan famous.D. (Mabud’s face changes from sadness to smile on the face and contemplation. As a result of years of suppression. the government passed a new law that classifies Muslims who settled during the British period as not being qualified to be Burmese citizens. for an ethnic group living in a hostile environment. anything about respect is good. In 1998. But unknown to the outside world. The multiethnic Burma give the impression of being like a Russian motyoshka doll: inside each layer of ethnic groups is another. This is the most important idiosyncrasy in Burma’s history. how could they have learnt Chittagonian when there was no such Chittagonian Bengali settlement there at the time. Siddiq: We had a long journey. also see Civilization Legacy Origins of Civilization http://video. He shifted his Captial to a new palace site in Mrohaung.com/index_4. Smart. Not surprisingly. To him of course human rights are only for its Buddhist majority. Akyab District. More Stretching of Imagination Aye Chan continues his stretching of imagination: “For the convenience of Chittagonians seasonal laborers the Arakan Flotilla Company constructed BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 67 a railway between Buthidaung and Maungdaw in 1914. The Union of Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) is the civilian support wing of the military regime. Remember. Unfortunately. It seems that in the face of contemporary ultra-nationalist Rakhine propaganda. In Arakan state. It seems that to establish the Mogh legitimacy. Abid Bahar unwittingly. today. and everyone against the Muslims.. the then elected Prime Minister of Burma recognized Rohingyas as one of the Burmese nationalities. I was born there and I am Burmese. When dealing with this key issue. Arakan-Burma Rohingya Human Rights Council (RHC). she is! She is forwarding fast to hug me. once I bought a lab top. we were getting ready! She likes to eat rice crispy cereal with banana. Abid Bahar “why?” Are Muslims the “easy targets?” (9)Are they themselves intolerant to the Burmese culture? It is not easy to answer these questions. human right’s activists. only the ancestors of people who settled prior to 1823 are the indigenous people of Burma and those who arrived later are not citizens. Dr. Faroque: These writers are ignominious individuals. So. Bengali slaves captured by the Arakanese and Portuguese soldiers.” it clearly developed… John Humphray. there is no limit to the number of enemies to be found within the 135 ethnic groups. (Photo: Arakanland. (13) Aye Chan’s assertion is clearly tendentious. Chris Lewa adds. once the Chakmas had a king named Shakhya from a Kshatriya Royal lineage. In Aye Chan’s demonstration of events. Burma is our country man! We have to break the Rakine xenophobic ice. 1989—Daw Aung San Suu Kyi leader of the National League of Democracy Party. (2) Scholars find in the latter a gentle. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 247 Article 7.. As a matter of duty of impeding reactionaries from their pretensions their works were brought to public attention..” THE ROHANG (ARAKAN). Abid Bahar It is true. RSO (Rohingya Solidarity Organization) ARIF (Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front) RPF (Rohingya Patriotic Front) RLO (Rohingya Liberation Organization) IMA (Itihadul Mozahadin of Arakan)” Aye Chan again is using xenophobia as a trick. to them Rohingyas must be foreigners! In pulling down the pillars of communal tolerance. through interdiction 226 Dr. However.000 Indians and some twelve thousand Pakistanis left Burma for their homeland. who with his gang is unto spoiling the Rohingya image internationally. The ultra-nationalists on one hand are the believers of Arakan’s independence and on the other are against the Rohingya people’s existence. Salimullah in Japan. Charney 1999: 265). our community. and extermination for groups like the Rohingyas. It curtails their economic activities by blocking access to markets and employment in other areas. Being an Arakanese. Thein Gyaw Aung and Kyaw 64 Dr. even as it presses them to “return” to Bangladesh. the news-media….. Salim and Dara took out their long knifes and shrieked at the notorious brothers and said.php?option=com_content&task=bl ogcategory&id=43&Itemid=72 http://www. 2… compassion and service. X. When I returned home away from home. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage. where can I find you? Early in life mother. the demon brothers were loose again. he sees the racially different Rohingya posing a dangerous threat—a threat from an enclave just near the BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 77 international border. the uninterrupted military rule in Burma. Thank you. Canada) Rohingya Refugee Report http://web… Abid Bahar In that situation an observer lately commented about the Rohingya situation “The life of a refugee is like a foot ball. Maung tried to cut the wing of the bird but Dara fought hard and disabled Maung and passed me the sword. videos of the massacres. You were being exterminated from your country of birth by the xenophobic military government. Abid Bahar 1784 Burmese invasion and conquest of Arakan and the Burmese King Budapawa carried with him the Mahayana Buddha Maha Muni statue. Thursday. About the book “Influx Viruses” he further says: “I hope this collective contribution will give both a broader understanding of so-called Rohingya issues and practical measures to address challenges of the future. M. I don’t care. an event that concluded the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826)..” BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 129 http://www.. a little loudly. U Habibur Rahman. We call on the Government of Myanmar to take urgent measures to eliminate discriminatory practices against the Muslim minority in North Rakhine State. (the Rakhine ultranationalists claim to justify their Arakanese indigenous status). When we left Akyab suburb. some are expressions of anger and frustration made through xenophobic statements. In such a context. 20) To put Aye Chan’s argument in context.(17) The similarities between Islam and Buddhism are outstandingly similar. 15. As we have come this far. Certain Arakanese xenophobe Combos helped the military made Arakan famous by producing refugees. 2005. To reverse the name Sittwe to its historic name Arakan was also suggested by Martin smith. (Mabud phones everybody and then sits near the mother. families or individuals . Endnotes (1) Aye Chan. Leider.” 7th February 1661 Shah Suja was killed.. (More people laughs) Hasan: The name sounds more like Portuguese. The leaders officially adapted the name during the 50’s. …. its “hybridity. 257 258 Dr. camps. Rohingya Frustration and Alienation Aye Chan in his analysis of the topic goes back to the events of 1942 in a zigzag fashion. they believed as if the invading Burmese army was BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 29 Rohingya’s allies and nothing had happened to the Rohingya Muslims and Hindus.. arrested minority leaders. lawyers. ironically Aye Chan throughout his paper calls these displaced persons as “Chittagonian people.” In the following.) presently teaches at Dawson College (Montreal). Prominent among them are a combo of Aye Kyaw and his student Aye Chan and a monk named Ashin Nayaka. They were also allowed to act as the village magistrates and shariah was somewhat in effect in the Muslim villages (Charter 1938:34-38). 1957. “The Night the Buddha came.. My mother was almost senseless in grief.. Not surprisingly.. the failure of the Muslim community in the South East Asian region in the similar Buddhist environment. But despite the uncertainties. You bastard! (Kirakini phones his friend Rasheed and leaves the place promising he will come back) EPISODE 3: KIRAKINI KILLING THE ROHINGYA IMAGE (Farouque’s house: Guests are still there. Here with a future democratic reform. p. In 1853 the Governor of Pathein annexed the southern portion of Thandwe District. p.. You will serve my community! Mabud: “Maa!” “Maaaa!!!” Yes. in 1982 the Burmese military government declared the Rohingyas as the non-citizens of Burma. Rangoon.. Pali. Inside Burma http://www.. he even strips the source.. different from the Pali influenced Tibeto-Burman Rakhine language. causing the country to disintegrate. you and your children might face more culture-shock and some of the important issues could be left out. it seems that only in a democratic Burma Muslim can have their future and Muslims should fight and utilize every democratic means to promote their survival strategies of peaceful living in Burma. They report of no help except the international agencies. (See appendix 6) Xenophobia is a matter of intolerance. thesis. a Rohingya exile who had fled Arakan. two eleventh century Islamic scholars who visited India and wrote about its religions. came Rakka tunga. (f ) Ponnagyun in Akyab District 5 villages. adopted some Islamic fashions such as the maintaining of silver coins that bore their Muslim titles in Persian and occasionally appearing in Muslim costumes in the style of the Sultan of Bengal. at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. When they are being challenged. (3) Robert Horn.” (p. obscene..rohingya. Because of its policy of multiculturalism.. and settled again near a valley.. by seemingly responsible people should be brought to public attention. Abid Bahar this tradition. Ibid.. for population statistics] and had successfully contested the 1990 election. In a punishing act. The right to food lies at the core of human rights ensuring physical and mental well being.. We have egg and toast and coffee for everybody. p. Rohingyas call the event as the “Karbalai Arakan. it seems that such Mogh claims are based on self-serving biases that can only create myths and non amphibious blobs. and officials were few in number when compared to the thousands of slaves established along the Kalander and Lambro Rivers.. Pakistan. Burma doesn’t allow the crossbreeding of identities and the minoritie’s were deprived of enjoying their rights and “democracy as a formal framework for debate” doesn’t take place. But Rohingyas as being a stateless people.. “An All Arakan Conference was held in Myebon on 1 April 1947 and about ten thousand people from all parties in Arakan attended. In the ongoing debate of “cultural self-defense. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. thesis. 1975. evidence shows that it is their intellectual collaboration and justification that Rohingyas are “foreigners” and the military government should exterminate the Rohingyas.com/time/asia/covers/1101021216/newin. It is time for prayer. But. not any sword.. ethically speaking. This anonymous nature of the Rohingya existence has to be removed and Rohingyas has to identify themselves as the members of the Rohingya nation. Rohingyalish language now so easy to learn. 2005.. the military alone can not carry out the crimes. Aye Kyaw and Dr. 36.” U Ottama was from Arakan.. But since there was no international observation team inside Arakan to look after the returning refuges. The language of the king was not the Burmese Moghhi “Tsit-ta-gungin”. he was recently invited to speak at the United Nation’s expert consultation on citizenship and minorities held in Geneva. present-day Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships of Arakan (Rakhine) State. When Imam Hossain pleaded he was unable to carry the burden. After over half a century of such widespread practice. (Chittagong: Chittagong: Arakan Historical Society. while all the males of a Rohingya village are summoned to an army camp under some pretext. while substantially true. and the Mon animists complicating the situation. with the help of the Burmese government. The author in 1991 in Prince Edward Island with his teacher Dr. Abid Bahar Are you there? Do you hear me mother? Are you also crying? Can you come back? Did I lose you? Forever? Mother!!! I lost my mother. the most important one is the rule of law that comes from tolerance and respect to others.. Forkan: Why did you call Rohingyas as Bengalis? Rasheed: That is what you are.. and uniting the many ethnic minorities. when the Rakhines. Soe.. 4. refugees. While this Rakhinization continued on one hand. Bengali slaves. REFERENCES (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) http://www. Finally.D. and Kassim gave leadership.” The Aegis Trust has collected these other definitions of genocide: “a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group. (2) And Ashin Nayaka. By now BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 107 due to the merciless massacre. In fact. Thinga Union for Buddhists.. But after the 1962 military coup of Ne Win.htm (47) Most Rohingya leaders interviewed unanimously demanded that their citizenship status be restored. In our contemporary period the event of Suja and the massacre of his family is not the reason why understanding the dynamics of ethnic relations in Arakan and by extention in Burma become so central. It says that their attitudes develop from parent’s discipline styles. he found them as “Chittagonians” to justify them as “foreigners..” one must also consider the BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 225 number of victims in relation to the overall size of the entire group. (5) In encouraging children to do a good job. Jacques Leider calls Arakan a “frontier culture. 2007. The original people here were the Canadian Natives. The question is when Chakmas and the Moghs are racially Mongoloid and speak a sharply different language than Chittagonian. the latter is a subgroup of Burmans. (b) National institutions and regional arrangements.. . Fortunately. Aye Chan says. Rohingya people were ordered by the authorities not to perform next Juma Prayer or (Friday prayer) in mosques. As expected Aye Chan says.” BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 153 Forkan: With a person like you Mabud… The name (Rohingya) is used by descendants of Bengali Muslims who settled in Arakan after the British occupation of Burma. after all the Chandra was an Indian kingdom in Arakan uprooted by the Mongoloid invasion but in Chittagong.The British adopted the policy to encourage the . . is a tribute to Rohingyamaa. intimidation and killing. “The Rohingya and the Rakhaing. The Buddhist samsara discourse in its subtle meaning is normally understood to work as an aid to pacify anger and promote peace. I have interviewed some Rohingya refugees in Japan and some others who arrived from Rangoon to attend the “International Conference on Problems of Democratic Development in Burma and the Rohingya People” in Tokyo. You came to a new country where the culture is very different from both Burma and Bangladesh. internationally Burma lingering as a pariah state. The military’s rule by force has kept Burma relatively unchanged. of course. This Rasheed is a Rakhine xenophobe. The Muslims of Burma A Study of a Minority Group. Rohingya Outcry and Demands..A. It is a matter of extreme intolerance: an idea that also goes against even Buddhism. Netherland. we are like a leaf in the storm.http://www. I also bought a new house. This very strange attitude on the part of exiled human rights groups and some leading Burmese democracy movement leaders seems to come from a fear that by dealing with it. Siddiq: Mabud bhai is interested in a girl born in Buthidaung who recently came to Kanada with her parents. “Their leaders began to complain that the term “Chittagonian Bengali” had arbitrarily been applied to them. 2009 Dedication I would like to dedicate this book to the victims of lawlessness in Burma and in particular in Arakan the victims among both the Rakhines and the Rohingya community.txt (13) http://en.” Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr ‘Toward empirical theory of genocides and politicides..000 sq. if such habits are allowed to grow. Chinese Muslims and Malays who settled and intermarried with local Burmese (4) From “1255-1286. (She grabs her shawl next to her and puts it on her). Rohingya Muslims. a major portion of the refugees refused to return home and later.” Perhaps 38 Dr.. then Aye Chan seems to contradict himself that most of the Rohingya people in the north of Arakan were not the Chittagonians but the uprooted Rohingyas from the south of Arakan. Abid Bahar peculiarly associated with Buddhism as a result of linguistic change over many centuries.. it is extreme exclusion.com/2007/11/26/common-virtues-ofbuddhism-and-islam/ http://thubtenchodron.” This emphasis on the uniqueness and intrinsic importance of individuals is. including murder…” SOAS Bullitin of Burma Research 1. everybody leaves) EPISODE 2: FAREWELL TO MOTHERLAND (Mabud enters Faroque’s house with his brother Siddiq. there was a debate between the author and professor Kei Nemoto concerning the existence of the Rohingya people in Rakhine (Arakan). which was divided into three districts repectively. said a Rohingya observer from Bangladesh. accessed on November 20. While the term “Mogh” has been in common use. People have been talking about it. Afghanistan. Moghs in the Arakan state of Burma. In 1931. “Aei no Jaium”(I will not go. What is the mystery behind the Chakmas and the Rohingyas while different in race and religion speak the same language called Chittagonian? To the Rakhine historians like Aye Chan and the military rulers “Rohingya” is a newly coined term came into existence during the 50’s but Francis Buchanan met some Burmese people in Burma in 1799 who called themselves as the Rohingyas.”(1) True. behind the xenophobic writings and human rights violations. while still others blame the “militant Islam” for Muslim’s lack of respect to the Burmese Buddhist environment..Ali. Faroque: When was it? Amena: It was during the early 40’s. APPENDIX 9 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Universal Declaration of Human Rights (other language versions) Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948 On December 10.http://en. an unpublished Ph. I think Kirakini has a point. (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country. Mon and the others. Tagore’s Paradigm Exposed in “Dalia”. June 03 2008.. also claim that racially. Surprisingly. the genocide in Burma and in Arakan in particular against minorities continues. In 2007. the focus should be on education. now crystallized into cleverly constructed written documents. 1575-1666 MOGH—PORTUGUESE ANARCHY IN LOWER BENGAL 1538 Sher Shah defeated the Sulltan of Gaur which led to the fall of the kingdom of Bengal and the beginning of the Mogh—Portuguese piracy in the Bay. and discrimination against them is simply racist. Abid Bahar We are puzzled with Chan’s statement above! When Bengal army was sent twice. hoes.. Rohingyas threatened by the Rakine xenophobia. I have attacks from xenophobic Rakhines regularly. Despite the transformation into a new life..” (p. “After the Saffron Revolution: Religion… Class and Ethnicity in the Hills of Bangladesh. Aye Chan continues his anti-Rohingya grievance: “Most of the Bengali immigrants were influenced by the Farai-di movement in Bengal that propagated the ideology of the Wahhabis of Arabia. particularly the claims of the Burmans and Rakhines.com/search?ei=UTF-8&y=Search&fr=ush2-mail&p=ashin +nayaka%2F+asia+leadership+award (10) 5-2-08 PDP’S REPLY TO JAMES LUM DAU. The solutions are in giving the right orientation to your people especially to the children. But the problem is if this extreme genocide of intimidation through forced labor. and helping in jailing of Rohingya leaders in Burma. 2005. however. (3) (4) (5) 114 Dr. India Office Records. ESSAYS IN THIS BOOK COVERS: Burma’s History Chauvinistic Nationalism Ethnic Conflict Genocide in Western Burma Rohingya and Rakhine History Burmese Muslim History Burmese Refugee Movement The Novel: Rohingyama This book was printed in the United States of America. (11) Michael Charney. Todays flow of refugees from Arakan to Bangladesh are not the Moghs. don’t say that. McGill University.279 Furnivall. forced the Burmese government to accept the Rohingyas back to Arakan.” (p.. whether like the prominent Muslim leaders of the past. 1992 Vol. New York: Arakanese in the United States. Posted on February 3. Mogh Rakhine Arakan’s true hisory refers to an exclusionist history that Arakan belongs to the Rakhines only and wish Rohingyas should be sent to Bangladesh. “Your mother is no more. arson or rape were spreading from area to area. Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. You cannot build unity with such a slogan especially when 40% of your population is different. (Part of this chapter was taken from a research paper presented at the International Conference on “Problems of Democratic Development in Burma and the Rohingya People” held in Tokyo on July16-17. this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. Her swollen red eyes spoke of the terrible suffering she had endured. Anwardhta was a usurper who deposed and banished his elder brother.” And it is true.. color. 1824-26—First Anglo-Burmese war and the Treaty of Yandabo. First. He demanded a “closer cooperation between Hindus and Buddhists.” Well. org . I have a new car.. there was unfortunately no one to catch these frauds in saffron robes. 27th October 1960 reports that Burmese “Supreme Court queshes expulsion orders against Arakanese Muslims.. (18) Referring to the Chittagong region.. we are walking in the direction of hope. Burma agreed with East Pakistan governor Zakir Hossain to take back Rohingya refugees who had taken shelter in Chittagong in 1958.. slave labor and destruction of religious sites and other acts of human rights violations. Little by little. However. detention or exile. tell me before you go. Aye Chan is a former student of Aye Kyaw also a US citizen now teaches in Japan is the coauthor of the anti—Rohingya book. Chittagong.. at about 6:00 pm. with this.. Repression. what is. Rohingya people have been driven out of Arakan in large numbers starting from A. While saying the above. Aye Chan finds it a problem! Aye Chan says about these migrants: “The migrations were mostly motivated by the search of professional opportunity. racial or religious group. p. In this type of use. Muslims first occupied Bengal.. Rohingyas are not included in this definition and branded as foreigners in Burma. UNHCR and Amnesty International investigation found out that Rohingyas were carrying Burmese National Registration cards. Everybody claims to be either a democracy movement leader or the supporter of the democracy movement. We will join you. “Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: Still No Durable Solution. and the existence of the untouchables. Workshop: From Dhanyawadi to 1962. Burma is a huge country with more than 130 ethnic groups. measures of xenophobic writings. causing the Aye Chan’s type Rakhine speculation that the rise in the Rohingya population in Arakan was caused by Bengali settlements in Arakan. as a dialect that “ . At last. the Buddhist pagodas and the Rakhine historic sites. The concerned authorities have been seizing lethal weapons such as—knives (Dah). 1974 Government’s denial of Rohingyas’ right to vote. part 11. Abid Bahar Despite strong commitment to the traditional kings’ model. 28) Aye Chan’s article “Enclave” portrays a politically defined superior Rakhine country gentleman living in peace and serenity in Arakan with its glorious past. We have to move on forward.” Nowhere is it as serious as in the province of Arakan. Burma became a very oppressive society.. it was some Western-trained Arakanese xenophobes who remained the brain behind the violence. Rahmat..” These writings provide the Arakani hoodlums with pseudo-intellectual justification for their genocidal acts in Arakan.” Due to such dual roles played by certain Monks as Ashin Nayaka and some ultra-nationalist Arakani intellectuals. Aye Chan’s most striking omission is that while he remains critical of the Rohingyas. Firstly.. This can’t be true because.. Japan and in the Middle East and approximately 200. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. but he remained silent on the continued refugee movement from Arakan beginning from 1784. but demonized as the Rakkhas. what is happening in the refugee camps in Bangladesh. their mosques are destroyed by the military and they are routinely subjected to forced labor.. uniracial and military ruled xenophobic Burma. said a village elder of Nan Tha Daung village on condition of anonymity. the military keeps its elite club functioning by dispensing privileges. their land is confiscated by the government for use by Buddhist settlers.. and the part targeted must be significant enough to have an impact on the group as a whole. Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonym in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan from Dhanyawadi to 1962..Conclusion: Burma Lives in the Past To make the multi-ethnic Burma a model of a great democracy. Noromikla escapes to Bengal again.. Firstly. I was advised by a professor from the History department (Moinuddin Ahamed Khan) to take up a project on the Rohingya refugees from Burma.org/index. Bangladesh government recognized Rakhine temples as important tourist spots. so in the same way from 957 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 97 A. To strengthen the Rohingya future. Buthidaung. Who is your real enemy. In Arakan.. in the opening decade of independent Burma. the ethnic minorities are too timid even to confess that they follow the “three monkeys rule. Burma Burmese Rohingya Association in Thailand (BRAT).That was a smart move by the Rohingyas but to the military and the xenophobes. said a businessman from Buthidaung Township.000-man army is needed to fight the ethnic minorities. it is important to reexamine the ethnicity of the ‘Rohingyas’ and to trace their history back to the earliest presence of their ancestors in Arakan. http://www… if you are a citizen of Burma. . Aye Chan claims that it is an academic work of some importance. pain and sufferings of their communities. Rasheed is his fake name..” (10) In his personal account of such victims.. Rohingyas for their darker complexion are called by the Moghs as the “kulas” (black people). Mullahs.” (25) My understanding is that to the Rakhine ultranationalists. the “purity of their race” due to the presence of other races among the Rakhines. in the mainstream Rakhine literary works and the media. It was also published on line website. 1992. My father was shot in the chest. and it indicates a corresponding trend in the rise of racism particularly in Arakan. Article 29. I M A G E S A S I A. . It is not easy to break the ice. We also see the Arakani king by defeating Jamal Khan took over Chittagong. they either assault the Rohingya womenfolk or take away those who look beautiful. said to have been Mohammadans. My father and my grandmothers were crying terribly.PaulHunt: Under the 1982 Citizenship Law.newagebd. they continue to be counted among the heroes of Burma’s high-flying democracy movement. Keep an eye on them so that children do not become bullies at school. USA Arakan Rohingya Organization-Japan (JARO) Rohingya Youth Development Forum (RYDF). The Rohingyas: A Short Account of the History and Culture. “A believer is not a fault-finder and is not abusive..” 788 During the reign of Arakani Indian Chandra King Mahat Sing Daya’s time recorded in the royal chronicle that several Arab ships wracked on Ramree Island. C. This is an eternal truth. But what is unwarrantable is his chauvinism. Moreover. which dramatically affect their physical and mental development… If we can have all our children learn Rohingyalish. an introductory Essay. (5) Is Aye Kyaw a historian? Surely it doesn’t demonstrate in his works! On the contrary.. XI. see Dr. 1917-18 Revival of Burmese Nationalist movements in the formation of Young man’s Buddhist Association (YMBA). In1982 the military government at the persuasion of some Rakhine leaders passed the Citizenship Act and this time. unfriendly NASAKA. Vol. (2) The Muslims in Arakan must be accepted as the nationalities of Burma.Bangladesh Co-operative book society Limited. We were running in every direction. On the other hand…. it can develop like an infection in a nation’s body to destroy peace in society.” These unscholarly claims by the proto-historians are contrary to British historian Francis Buchanan. “the word Muhammad is also spelt as ‘Mahamet’ or ‘Mahomet’ and in various other ways in different languages. Some popular but non-intellectual Rakhine writers on the xenophobic website Rakhapura. Finally. Mabud opens it.. You know maa. It is not known how big was the Muslim population of Arakan at the time of the Chandra rule but it seems certain that if there was no mass migration of the Tibeto-Burman population from Burma into Arakan from 957 A.D.” Surely Aye Chan was not asleep when he made the xenophobic and inciteful arguments in his work. Sahara or Amena were either lost in the turmoil or displaced somewhere else.000 Rohingyas entered Chittagong. For the past week everybody is sending us food. Anwardhta (1044-77). Sanjay Subrahmanyam… This makes sense when we notice that Rohingyas are descended from the aboriginal Dravadian Kula stock. Contrary to Aye Chan’s findings. 2008. Corrupt superior profits have a marginal effect on the economy of the country.. As the British Labor Government promised independence for Burma. “The present paper was written for distribution and discussion at a seminar in Japan. In proving his hypothesis. “the leading Pongyi activist and friend of India who led the entire Pongyi movement during 1920s” Twice he became the President of Hindu Mahasabha during the 1930s. Abid Bahar His friend returned in a panic later the same day. He says he receives threatening emails from both the Rakines and sometimes from the Rohingyas. . Abid Bahar In the above we see Chan’s yardstick is that Rohingyas. . she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The survey also notes that these beliefs and attitudes among the xenophobic intelligentsia could also be the antecedents to the problems facing democratic development in Burma. In this tragic triangle. Bangladesh is the only country gave shelter to the Rohingya people.” Were the Chakma and the Rohingya ancestors the citizens of the ancient Chandra kingdom of Arakan? CHAPTER 4 MYSTERY BEHIND THE CHAKMA AND THE ROHINGYA’S LINGUISTIC SIMILARITIES Chakmas are the largest racially Mongoloid people of the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. has developed over the past 45 years under military dictatorship. In the Arakan of chaos.000 Rohingyas to Bangladesh) 16. Burma became independent in 1948. It could be that their Buddhist evangelists originated from Bihar.. … the human rights issue is a purely domestic question. and the ANC members in India. When I began looking. Chakmas or the Rakhines (Moghs). Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part…. (5) During the time of the Burmese invasion of Arakan. this information had already been known to the Rohingya villagers so that the villagers were on red alert for resistance if they were attacked at night. Shattered and devastated. Aye Kyaw says: Rakhaing have been enjoying their life since the beginning of their history with King Marayu in B. it is interesting to note that there are other similarities between the Chakmas and the Rohingyas referring to their origin in Arakan. like Aye Chan and Aye Kyaw. where are you? I am looking for you everywhere! Wait! I can hear something from the whisper of the leaves. Shahid bhai: No. xenophobic intellectuals and leaders in high positions who surreptitiously prevent individuals from deprived minorities from gaining access to the leadership. Aye Chan and the monk Ashin Nayaka.. in the democratic Bangladesh. the ultranationalist claim that “Rakhine” has derived from Rakhaing>Rakhha/ Rakkh-pura> Rakhapura>Rakhingatha seems a religiously motivated assertion.. this could be an interesting work that outlines in detail the issues of dispute surrounding Burma’s Rohingya community written from the Rakhine perspective. As the first edition of the book. In addition.. Abdul Karim. Rāvana.. Lt. The Rohingyas: A Short Account of the History and Culture. (15) Abdul Haque Chawdhury..com> Monday. Contrary to the xenophobic claims..” (p. 1981.2. Thus. quoted in “What is Genocide?” http://efchr. Max Hadley. ethnic minority’s similarities with their neighbors. It seems that there is a great deal of resources common among the Buddhists and Muslims.. the question that Aye Chan didn’t answer is: why was there a general discontent? Why even the local police felt alienated? It must be a result of gross injustices done to the Rohingyas? While the demands seem legitimate. liberty and security of person. the language of the Chandras. a scholar on Arakan history. “Orbituary: The Puppet Master of Burma.. Link: http://search. “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms. .. and “He is a racist who says.. Don’t allow your children to use violence to solve problems. and to guarantee that the right to nationality as enunciated in article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 5 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination finds meaningful expression within Myanmar’s borders. .” (p. Aye Chan with a void premise is beginning to isolate Rohingyas into an enclave.. But he could see bleeding people in several boats behind him.. (1) The Hindu epic Ramayana.000 Rohingyas were massacred. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Article 21. History or myth. Smith speaking to the London Assembly. identified in the colonial record as “Mugh” meaning the “pirates in the Bay. I heard many people died.. This convention establishes “genocide” as an international crime. kicking from bar to bar. thesis. recorded by Aye Chan as fact. the Arakan’s ultranationalist group that operates from India and Bangladesh. Now I know. Scene 4 could be staged as a children’s drama. Most of these claims appear to be based more on racist dogma than on available historical evidence. In this way. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 135 L Win: Are you talking about 1942? Amena: It got to be! Then everything became upside down.com/wp-content/uploads/ The%20Significance%20of%20the%20term%20%20 Kula%20%20for%20the%20Rohingyas%20and%20the%20 Burmese%20Muslims.. .. a majority of the Arakanese population—both Rakhine and Rohingya—escaped from Arakan to Chittagong causing this ‘depopulation’ of Arakan.. Abid Bahar (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) Rohingyas: A Short Account of the History and Culture. (11) The authors of the xenophobic book “Influx Viruses” in their promotion of xenophobia didn’t take into consideration these mass migrations of the Rohingya Muslim refugees to Chittagong from the vicinity of Kaladan and Lemro Rivers.” (29) Historically… refused to accept in the words of Laider. when I think of my father and Pori. and can serve as a handy tool for inciting Arakanese ultra-nationalists and xenophobic military to exterminate more Burmese Rohingyas. Issues to be Raised Concerning the Situation of Rohingya Children in Muanmar(Burma) Form—Asia.. not all the Rakhines are bad people? Amena: No. returned to Burma from Japan. The author says. It wants to make the Rohingya population to a negligible size. Aye Chan says. M.. So I am glad to have the right audience here. any non-Rakhine 1 Strangely though. and at the same time encourage higher education as the strategies of survival. she taught me. India’s ancient literature identifies racially dark skinned people with Negroide features to have lived in the southern part of India.” Persian played a significant role in Arakan and Chittagong for a long time. we are the ones dying.php?option=com_content&task =view&id=1065&Itemid=38 Abid Bahar. Burmese rulers have treated ethnic and racial minorities 198 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 199 as subject peoples or even aliens. Arakan. org/index. To guarantee this. one third of the returning refugees died of starvation and malnutrition and the rest of them began to lead a gypsy life here and there inside Arakan.. this is a matter of human impulse to return to their homeland. whether Muslim leadership should calibrate and keep it in tandem with the Burmese ethnic dynamics or keep their strong and pure Muslim identity in this very unique and hostile societal context… Abid Bahar From 1962. in Bangladesh.. .”(15). you have two sons you will be ok! Did I tell you…. The name of my village is Ummadi Rwa and the name of our Ooksoo (Union) is Senthaung under Kyawktaw Mrooney (Township). . Switzerland.” 2006. Now that you re in Canada. It should not look for enemies. . The combination of human right violations the Rohingya face—from the denial of legal status to restriction of movement and economic constraints—creates food insecurity and makes life in Northern Rakhine State untenable for many. leading to major mass exodus and ethnic cleansing in the last three decades. Sara Smith Faked History. Noakhali and Comilla. posing as the devoted democracy movement leaders in everywhere.. By the method of terror. Nurul Islam ARNO. 2006 (IPS).. Buddhism is used to promote antagonism and violence against its Rohingya citizens. Rakhines (in Cox’s Bazar). Karen and Rakhine. and their claims of an earlier historical tie to Burma are insupportable. Amena: Sind Khan helped Arakan freed with his 30 thousand soldiers. some surveys conducted in Burma by members of certain ethnic groups found considered the Burmans as their enemy. these are the central contradictions that need to be understood and resolved. Mabud: When was it? BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 143 Faroque: It was in 1991. July 16… Rangoon: CD 1016/10/11): (1) The area between the West Bank of Kaladan River and the east bank of Naaf River must be recognized as the National Home of the Muslims in Burma. However. the Chittagong Hill Tracts. and her fulsome face! Siddiq: That is a very long poem. Are you somewhere there? Mother. **Fatema Khatun. Bangladesh becomes the first victim of refugee problem. said a local politician requesting not to be named.. Kyaukpyu.. the main objectives of the movement of some groups have been to gain the recognition of their ethnic entity in the Union of Burma and to obtain the equal status enjoyed by other ethnic groups. Arakan began to pay annual taxes and Persian began to be used as the court language. 1975. My father also told me that for the present xenophobic problems Ashin U Ottoma is responsible. (7) Ibid (8) Abu Anin. What is the nature of the collaboration? The swindler fights only with the mask of the devil. Rohingyas continue to leave Arakan. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 47 (20) Rohingya refugees interviewed in various locations for the present research reports of atrocities and Monks giving leadership in the mob attacks. one can surmise that if Anawrahta’s historic invasion of North Arakan first initiated the expulsion of the Chittagonian speaking ancient Indo-Semitic Chandra Rohingyas and the Chakmas from North Arakan to Chittagong. ‘Democracy can only be a transition in Myanmar’ Fri.. 2000. After unloading the military to the targeted places. Aye Chan and other similar Rakhines followed this line of xenophbic interpretation. forming an “enclave.. hoisting the Rohingya banner. were not spotted. I don’t blame our leadership entirely.” America Burma Institute. how much can you cry? Here in my file I found a story of the military oppression: Title “The harrowing Tales of Rohingya Refugees” This was published in Asia Week. In addition.. This could be the reason why Rohingyas till today carry the Arab dress and customs. 2009 The increased number of Rohingya boat people in the sea: “With the refugee camps in Bangladesh long having stopped taking people. Iman: What happened? BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 141 Mabud: After a while. we have good things going on also. the victims couldn’t be seen. I am right. It appears that the so-called demons were the Dravadians dark skinned Negroides aboriginals of the South. The persecution began again. Noromi Kla now takes the name Sulauman Shah and becomes the king.. Mrauk U.C 3325. Smart (Compiled) Burma Gazetteer.” (p. These areas had been in the Rakhaing Kingdom for more than two thousand years. Abid Bahar even when you turn to the wise and ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus. due to the non-Mongoloid racial origin of the Rohingyas. 000 registered Rohingya refugees in Chittagong. They are pointing out that this is not fighting for democracy! Indeed. the latter are already citizens of Bangladesh should do something about Bangladeshi Rohingya identity. Article 13.. Link: http://www.com/ Accessed. it should encourage dismantling the myths of xenophobic ethnic boundaries created by the xenophobic writers like Aye Chan. Many people left their villages but a Rakine Monk who was my father’s friend gave us shelter. 1942. they have to recognize its citizen’s individual human rights. 24) Indeed. almost all claim that Rohingyas migrated to Arakan during the British period. Arakan’s distant past shows Arakan is both at the same time an extension of Burma and also Bengal and the Rakhines and the Rohingyas are the expressions of its past. your’s was the first face to see after my birth. Rohingyas in great numbers and some smaller Arakani tribes also took shelter in Chittagong. said the following from southern Arakan: “ .. husband. Alraf: People who went to Saudi Arabia and the Middle East all went with Bangladeshi passport. using a Muslim writer as a source to show Aye Chan’s cross cultural expertise on the subject and secondly to portray Islam as being dangerous. Persian and Bengali settlement particularly in the coastal areas. In doing this. the Chittagong Hill Tracts.com Joshua Eliot and Jane Bickersteth. “How dare you muddle the water from which I am drinking?” “Nay. It was the regular policy of most Burmese kings . say something to Kirakini. It seems that the leadership needed to bring about democratic change in Burma is practically nonexistent.com/watch?v=9kIPtU89QA&feature=related The figure was disclosed to the author by Chris Lewa in Geneva. His wife. Rohingyas again began to be protectionless. before the Japanese troops and Burma Independence Army (BIA) reached there… Rohingya parents must help children to continue to do children’s daily homework. when it is very much needed. It seems that the half-heartedness of the democracy movement leaders could be the reason behind Burma’s unending democracy movement. but Burma has a much bigger army than Bangladesh. Gay McDougall. “Buddhism in Araka. What is even more serious is that there have been systematic efforts to exterminate Burmese-born Rohingya citizens. the women were killed. 11. inactive ones”? If they were inactive how could they be important? What were they doing when remained inactive? Surprisingly. Pakistan. To resolve this and the other similar issues. which came down plash to the swamp. We are talking about a situation that is real.” Israel Charny in George Andreopoulos (ed).7 Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Chapter 9: Chapter 10: Chapter 11: Chapter 12: Chapter 13: The Enemy #1 in Burma .. a national. took over Chittagong which is now a part of Bangladesh. during the Anglo-Burmese war (1824-1826) the ultra-nationalist sentiment began to grow to the point that after the First World War. Arakan was finally battered after Burma’s independence when almost one third of its original territory was added to Burma’s mainland. the Chittagong Hill Tracts.000 stateless Rohingya people live in Malaysia.. Therefore.. My paternal grand father’s name is Zebar Mullock who was killed during the pogrom of 1942 in communal violence.. interfaith dialogue in Burma. it is important that Burmese historians play a role to clear up the confusion on the Rohingya issue that feeds the extremists to the point that they were being officially declared as the non citizens of Burma. Noakhali and Comilla. When interviewed.. Dec. Toronto but I went to Windsor and you came to Kitchner. vii. split up a north western Arakan Hill Tracts area bordering India and a southern most part of Arakan (from Kyauk Chaung River to Cape Negaris) from the Arakan mainland.261 PREFACE Not long ago. I will ask my friends from Buthidaung.. Abid Bahar Mabud: Did you know this? It is in Arakan that a historic massacre was committed? There.unhchr.. You know that there were anti-Indian riots in Rangoon.. the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. before we were forced to leave.S O’Malley.. When asked people if they had any documents provng their citizenship. (2) Everyone. Here the problem persists between these two major ethnic groups. Abid Bahar Kachine and Karanni states.org/wiki/Burma_Muslim_Congress. nothing? Hamdan: Look. However. two months ago Imam Hossain.. not knowing that such a xenophobic attitude is a principle that is more akin to Fascism.. 1977. In other words. php?hidDate=20060215&hidType=FEA&hidRecord=00000000000000000 89087. Amazingly. In Buthedaung your father began tutoring students for income. Mabud: Anuwar.. Arakan National Council (ANC) that includes exiled groups like the Arakan League for Democracy. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)..” 1942 Japanese Occupation of Arakan and the Birth of Rohingya Tragedy If the Burmese invasion of Arakan in 1784 and the subsequent British colonial occupation from 1826 were not enough to create misunderstanding among Arakanese people. who infiltrate. In 1831 it amounted to 173. Rohingyas look more like the Bengalis across the border from Burma but.” (34) Ironically. her voice dropping almost to a whisper. literary or artistic production of which he is the author. the Rakhine-Rohingya relations deteriorated further. Pori was bleeding from the nose. 28. . The Rohingyas progressively leave Burma in small groups. The fear was so intense.. But they will do nothing about it. this interpretation is incomplete. the genocidal practice of ban on Rohingya marriage in villages and extermination have been practiced to get rid of them from their mythically exclusive “Mongoloid-Buddhist Arakan” land. the author received a constant barrage of abuses from tedious people. Malaysia. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure.. These groups have been kept under tight control by the military dictatorship for the past half-century.” Surely. China Japan Thailand Vietnam Myanmar —102 000 000 —8 965 000 —55 480 000 —49 690 000 —41 610 000 Sri Lanka —12 540 000 South Korea —10 920 000 Taiwan —9 150 000 Cambodia —9 130 000 India —7 000 Source: http://www. In addition. provisions and cash is widespread. [The victory of NDPHR angered the military regime and its ultra-nationalist supporters within the majority Rakhaing community leading to forced expulsion of some 300. 17. the author acknowledges that.html.” (Qur’an. Arakan has developed a strong culture of lawless hooliganism against minorities.” For researchers of Burma’s ethnicity and race relations. social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Where did you get it. Mohamed Ayub. one voice. The Children of Maghan Thakur (the Muslim Chief Minister of Arakan) among others also escaped Arakan but empty handed and settled in northern Chittagong) Habibullah records that from 1670. 1930 Burmese—Indian Riot 1935 Burma was separated from British India.. God knows when it will end.rohingya. extra-judicial persecution and eviction.” To them the stateless Rohingyas mean “gypsies. In his work he creates an imaginary enclave which is not there…1. Amena: (Sat in the corner. Here Aye Chan is right: Rohingya’s demand for their rights is a direct challenge “to the right of autonomy and the myth of survival for the Arakanese majority in their homeland. rohingya.” In the colonial record. J. Ne Win first began a policy of “divide and rule” in Arakan between the Mogh and the Rohingyas. anti-Muslim. Hamadan.. both the democratic leadership and the military remain hugely uncommitted to minority rights. hardly any book written on our history.. In 1991. and destruction of villages and rape has been used as a weapon of war against minorities. During U Nu’s time attempts were made to integrate the Rohingyas and they were recognized as one of Burma’s nationalities. Parents willing their children do well must keep an eye on this. It says a picture is worth a thousand words. Arakan began to pay annual taxes and Persian continued to be used as the court language. it is very hard to believe that there were mass migrations of people from Chittagong to Arakan. to be moderate. Rising in the guise of Jihad. (Dhaka: University Press Ltd. so they should go back to Bangladesh. Suddenly. other at Maungdaw jail. The military was collecting young people for constructing highway. Karakini: You guys are assholes! You wouldn’t understand! I am leaving.” “deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part” and “imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. http://thubtenchodron. Charney says that when the British occupied Arakan. My father said.. History shows both Chakmas and the Rohingyas lived on the line of fire but tried to escape from trouble.” Here Ashin Nayaka due to his ethnic superiority feelings refused to acknowledge Rohingyas as a people and says “dangers and challenges” should be feared by the Rakhine and the Burmese people. such a plan couldn’t be true for other reasons that the distance between Arkan and Chittagong city is over 300 miles. In the morning. It seems clear that with the Rakhines. felt it necessary to fulfill their demands. From the above review of Aye Chan’s description of Rohingya history. (3) The military. particularly the Rohingyas. Rohingya Patriotic Front (RPF). The 46 Dr. Abid Bahar (44) Rohingya Refugee Report http://web. A closer look shows Rohingyas are a racially different non-Momgoloid Burmese people of multi-ethnic Arakan and Aye Chan’s work is part of a literature intended to validate Burmese military’s official claims that Rohingyas are “foreigners” in Burma. so they determined to send up a petition to Jove to give them what they wanted. Bankok.freerohingyacampaign. it even uses deception.. some of the local Rakhine leaders of Sittwe. . We are not Bengalis.” Today over a million people. m. thereupon all the Frogs came and did the same. On the other hand.. a Japanese expert on Burma. An unpublished Ph.. and other popular Rakhine websites promote xenophobia. I have personally visited the refugee camps in Ukhiya of southern Chittagong.. The have no life. Mabud: Why Maa? You don’t seem even happy here! Amena: No. Rangoon: Burma Governmen Printing and Stay. Having said this.. Rohingyas are targeted by the xenophobic junta to exterminate them through genocide of intimidation…. Sadek (Malayasia). 1784-1824 Burmese rule of Arakan: MOGH-ROHINGYA MIGRATION TO CHITTAGONG AND CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS OF BANGLADESH BURMESE INVASION OF ARAKAN 1784-85. as well as the prominence or importance of the targeted individuals within the entire group. 2008. Then his nose was severed and eyebrows ripped off. I began to attend seminars to help my community. There are good people among them..Michael Young says “Afghanistan has been a Muslim country for only a slightly shorter period than Egypt. We lived in tents in the Nayapara cap. Available information shows that the Rakhines comprise 30% of its representation in the 400. have the right to marry and to found a family. still it did not move. During the early months of 1884. The high price of rice. p. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 63 Aye Chan’s Religious Xenophobia To create a victim’s complex among the Rakhines. This makes him a racist.pdf..” It is true during this time a Chandra king (not a Mogh king) ruled Arakan. it preaches what it calls a “disciplined democracy. Siddiq: Ya maa! 156 Dr. “Towards the middle of twentieth century. Abid Bahar _________________________ Bara Chicken Kura _________________________ Mouog Wife Begum/Mouog _________________________ Despite their racial differences. Smart reported that it was due to the ignorance of the advantages of the education among the Chittagonian agriculturists… (3) Michael Charney says. more like a Sanskrit Bangladesha/ Bangladesh. due to such a Bengali/ Persian and Arabic influence. for it runs down from you to me.” Ga Thandi. Shan region.. p. and. It seems Buddhism in Burma is inextricably interwoven with the political ideology of domination by the Burman majority.. Mabud: Ok.php?hidDate=2006-0215&hidType=FEA&hidRecord=0000000000000000089087 Abid Bahar.” (27) Aye Kyaw.. It seems that at the outset of his article. whose propaganda is almost always directed against ethnic minorities. two-thirds of the population of Arakan have fled to Chittagong . about 40 trucks and buses loading with military were going to Maungdaw north from Maungdaw town. Arakan. 1684 Sandathudamma the king of Arakan died. A.org/background_on_burma. I have a friend named Stephen who once said. while the ancestors of the Rakhine Moghs of Bandarbon and Cox’s Bazar. Mabud: Maa. Abid Bahar made you into nations and tribes.. Sanskrit. Persians. I am leaving you! (Kirakani leaves slamming the door laud and everybody laughs) Mabud: (Visibly upset at Rohingyas throwing mud at each other says) please don’t laugh…. Article 6 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court shares this definition. mother-in-law. the author Fazlur Rahman didn’t say anything about the Rohingyas. The Modern Rohingya From a backward community in the past century. That was very interesting. Moreover. p.html Julian Ruth.. The green foliage and picturesque valleys of the southern parts of Cox’s Bazar of Bangladesh which cater celestial delights to the visitors have turned into a place of exile for those hapless Rohingya refugees. hunger for land was the prime motive for the migration of most of the Chittagonians. This is more so in Western Burma. “maa” then I herd it responded again “maa.. It is not difficult to understand who will benefit from this type of xenophobic propaganda. no schooling is now allowed for Rohingyas. As you perhaps know. Thailand Arakan Rohingya Refugee Committee (ARRC). (5) The refugees from the Kyauktaw and Myohaung (Mrauk-U) Townships must be resettled in their villages at the expense of the state.’ the chauvinist leaders follow xenophobia as a guide and persecute the minorities. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 193 Muslims are Burmese People It is not easy to be a Muslim in Burma despite the fact that “most Muslims are indistinguishable in appearance and behavior from the country’s Buddhists population: they dress the same.e. Leider’s work is interesting where he uses the key term “frontier culture” for understanding Arakan. Muslim Quarter in the heart of Maungdaw town ordered to vacate.” (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan.. There were approximately 200 people with us leaving the entire village. a universalistic concept of human rights that seeks to guarantee the security and integrity of every human being. Everyday. the British dropped this indigenous name Rohingyas altogether because Rohingyas had more similarities with Chittagonian Rohingyas across the Naaf River than the Rakhines (the latter known in the colonial records as the Moghs).” 2005. before the democracy movement can truly progress in Burma. “We should however restrain ourselves to stamp out this revolutionary monk as orthodox and anti-Muslim. every one with roots in West Bengal in Bangladesh should be thrown out and everyone with roots in East Bengal should be thrown out of West Bengal/India. p.. In the name of driving out Indians. . some mainstream literary works profess the model of exterminating minorities through ethnic cleansing.. like in the past Rohingyas will risk losing everything. many people went to different countries but my friends told me. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. rape. Mogh and Rohingya settlements can be found both in Arakan and in Chittagong.. Nurul Islan (Ctg). Nemoto. But due to this event. which could have an impact on the economy. Canada.. The military’s policy in dealing with Rohingyas is termed by scholars and human rights groups as “genocide through intimidation. the activists have to be relentless in their activities. It is true. Episode 4 is about fighting the demon… .. Here are some of the examples. Lethbridge University in Alberta. Abid Bahar In his attempt to prove Rohingyas as being niggling people. It is a statement based on flimsy premise.) the Chandra kingdom was known to the Indian Buddhist missionaries as the land of the Rakkhasa. This deep-rooted typical medieval xenophobic attitude could be the yet unexplored issue and reasons for the delay in the democratic development in Arakan and Burma. it denies one part of Arakan history. Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society: A case Study of Inter Ethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas. the above.” and their fate was allotted with the Burmese Buddhist majority country.. Certain terms such as Burma is used for the official name of the country Myanmar. Intermixture with the local Dravadian population led to the first Chandra-Rohingyas of Arakan. 2005. March we in unity” and “Skilful of lies and slanders. It seems more likely that before the Mongoloid Mogh (Tibeto—Burman) invasion of Arakan in 957 A.. From the above discussion.com/ eng-art/Arakanese_Nationalism_and_the_Struggle_for_National_self_R. The way I see it. when it comes to the non-Rakhines. the military rulers led two more operations against the Rohingyas which were called “Galoon” and “Shwe Hinsa”.” Harvey says “And here most of the fugitives were not even political refugees.. The Illegal Muslims in Arakan. In this article he notes that he was the architect behind the 1982 constitution Act that officially denied the Rohingya people their Burmese citizenship. but about chauvinistic ethnic groups in Burma that promote hatred against other groups. Secondly. this is similar to Mohayana Buddhism in Bengal of the time. Dr. From the above. and that there were some cases of robbing the Indian refugees on the Padaung-Taungup pass over the Arakan Yoma mountain ranges after the retreat of the British from the Pegu Division and southern Arakan. The five member organizations in the new monk alliance are the Rakhine Thinga Association. which are distributed among a small group of beneficiaries along the corrupt military chain and do not therefore put purchasing power to a wider public. (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country.” Gaffour: Kirakini is wrong. It is from this single Burmese invasion of Arakan that Bangladesh today has people of Arakani origin. I have to walk in the direction of hope.. The former is the self confessed military’s collaborator who enjoys his US citizenship but helped in the drafting of the 1982 xenophobic Burmese Citizenship Act that declared the Rohingyas as the noncitizens of Burma. while the Arakanese Buddhists formed 67. “In the period of the independence movement in Burma in 1920s and 1930s the Muslims from the Mayu Frontier were more concerned with the progress of Muslim League in India.”(17) It appears that only a fraction of its population returned back to Arakan. shows that during the genocidal Burmese campaign. which means that you be consistent with children… this spilled over terror from Arakan was unknown in the Bay. The Persian version yak-ab means place of a river meeting the sea. spades from Rohingya villages. Arakan lost its lucrative revenue from piracy and of slave trade. Burma did not manage to evolve a system comparable to that in western democracies. p. First Burmese invasion of Arakan It appears that as a result of the first Burmese invasion. Abid Bahar (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms.D.. I mean something else. We wouldn’t have to starve to death as is in refugee camps or in the sea going to Malaysia or in Arakan where the NASAKA is chasing us! Amena: Siddiq. Chakma and Chittagonian language it is “no Pairgom.. British administration to a certain extent gave the Muslim village communities religious and cultural autonomy. } Original Message from AYE KYAW to kunyia@freerohingyacampaign. the report of the survey is presented and the research concludes that the growing chauvinistic literary works have the potential to breed intolerance and aggression in society—factors that could contribute to producing more refugees to Burma’s neighboring states.com (8) Images Asia Report: “Muslims in Burma. even after a million Rohingya people left Arakan.. They even say. Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve. Burma… Aye Chan in biting disposition states. and Sandoway.. Bangladesh.. Dissertation. 252. we were an agricultural community with simple lifestyle.1 IV. one or two of the boldest of them ventured out towards the Log. There was no internal sense of unrighteousness and presence of nonbelievers in their community. Common virtues of Buddhism and Islam BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 197 (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) http://sanooaung. It was also published on line website. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group. He gave Buddhism. To the proto-historians of Arakan.. the army and other law enforcing personnel often enter the Rohingya localities on the pretext of an enquiry. What was the population of Arakan at the time of Burmese invasion? From the close contact that Arakan maintained with Bengal for over 3 centuries. e. the following themes are rather evident: (1) Muslims and Rakhines were divided on racial-religious lines. 37. the date they cite is 1826. the Thai Muslims and in Cambodia. I can’t speak in English. the standard of judging Burmese nationality has been done on the assertion by the dominant group about who came first in Burma. Narratives and Counter-Narratives of Identity in Quebec. has led already impoverished families into starvation..)They describe of horrifying stories of general lawlessness against the Rohingya citizens. A survey of the mainstream Burmese literature shows common features of hate and xenophobia. He says he is with us as a member of the suffering humanity. a national.118 A Short Review of Aye Kyaw’s “The Burma We Love” and “The Rohingya and the Rakhaing . (p. Many of them arrived by the sea and settled in coastal regions.. Brussels. Depending on who is asking. the refugees interviewed by different international organizations and the world media reported appalling atrocities at the hands of the Burmese army. All these movements of the Arakanese might have alarmed Muslims from the Mayu Frontier. Many Rohingyas left Arakan to escape death.. They might follow the adult’s harmless white lies. do you hear?” Suu says in tears..”(8) Bangladesh government normally discourages religious extremism. stored for me. family.D.. It is the military junta of Ne Win that usurped power later that began persecuting them and questioning the status of the Rohingyas. against some people’s birth rights.. once a beautiful kingdom in the Bay of Bengal..php?menu=2 The word ‘genocide’ was coined by Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959). Abid Bahar The Arab presence in Arakan continued up to the seventeenth century. the Rohingyas issue of statelessness remains largely an unpopular topic among Burma’s high level democracy leaders. were sent to Arakan proper and settled in villages.. certain modern Islamic scholars have asserted that the Prophet Dh’ul Kifl—the “man from Kifl”—mentioned twice in the Qur’an.arakanland.” I was not born then. Mabud: We still keep the tradition of caring for each other that we had in Arakan.. He had owned a small grocery shop in his village. 1960 Rohingya broadcasting centre was allowed. the sources. com/story_ main36. It was so heart-rending and so harrowing experience that I have personally experienced and witnessed which can never be imagined in a free world.” The conceptual distillation of the story Rohingyamaa in both drama and in narrative form is about the plight of Rohingya people of Arakan.21) Throughout his essay.. hahaha!! I sounds similar the Rakani. And the rest of Canada is 168 Dr. Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA) Bangkok.000. In this part of the world. I will go back to Arakan to visit the spot where I left both of my family members…. they are truly fascist people. Abid Bahar new phenomenon. and now a growing number of educated Rohingya people..pdf The author acknowledges his debt to the Rohingya newsgroups.freerohingyacampaign. Today..html APPENDIX 2 WHAT IS GENOCIDE? (Adopted from McGill University sponsored Global conference on genocide in 2007) What is Genocide? http://efchr. (The mother. I have no personal interest in Rohingya people’s internal matters. Rashid and U Razak played an important role in the leadership of the Burmese nationalist movement. Aye Kyaw’s spurious expressions can be forgiven for the reasons that his first language is not English. diseases. he is as trying to find a pin (the illegal Rohingya) in a haystack. Marriages have been banned. his neglect of the contextual approach created a void in his work and retarded his entire line of arguments.” http://www…. Indeed. I think our children should know this history. Rohingya bhaii ar boenora! Unora keon Ashon? I came to see you from Montreal. pestilence and death. 554 has no direct connection with the racially mongoloid and Buddhist Rakhine Theravada tradition arrived in the 19th century. In some cases.. it appears that most of the Mon tribes were pushed down to the South where they live today and Chakmas as a subgroup first took shelter in Arakan and subsequently to Chittagong. 2005.. Subhan demanded unconditional release of detainees (in Akyab Central Jail) arrested under Citizenship Act. This work is of different kind about the Rohingya’s ongoing struggle and the main theme derives from several sources. Oxford University Press: (Canadian edition) 2008. During the hundred years of Mogh rule. I realized that we are still human and we could give love and even cry but that we can do it even louder. Smart. 2007) An enclave is part of a country geographically separated from the main part by the surrounding foreign territory. U Taher. Moghs or Rakhines couldn’t be the Rakhhasas as the Rakhine intellectuals wish to see. pp. and heard that Canada is a great country.ovimagazine. Bangladesh government should keep an eye on xenophobic Arakanese elements including monk’s activities in Bangladesh.. when innumerable Rohingya men.bengali/msg/80428f57a0e9a903.” “foreigners”. as expected.. Especially Buthidaung and Maungdaw were reported to be most backward townships because the large Muslim population in that area mostly agriculturalists showed little interest in education.. I first gaped wordlessly at this incredible apparition. I cried and cried. but some notorious Rakhine intellectuals have been trying to prove that our ancestors were from Chittagong.asp (21) David Law. among the largely Indian Chandra population. “Conflict. The following are the Rohingya organizations currently active on the Burma-Bangladesh border (Mya Win 1992: 3): 1. both similarities and differences among the groups seem compelling. This faux pas is significant because the xenophobic works deliberately overlook the outcome of the invasions that resulted in exodus of large number of Rohingyas from Arakan who settled in southern Chittagong across from the Naaf River. On the other side 70 Dr.)to their indigenous identity. At least the Islamic court of village had the jurisdiction over familial problems such as marriage. if man is not to be compelled to have recourse. According to the 1983 census report all Muslims in Arakan constituted 24.tehelka. anti Rohingya discontent in Arakan.. called Buddha a “Prophet. Aye Kyaw’s recent article “Rohingyas and Rakhines” written in response to the “First Conference on the problems 120 Dr. Iman: Was it a tent or a sack? Mabud: She took shelter in a sack. called both the Muslim and the Hindu Rohingya “Kulaw Yakain (Rakhing). This very serious issue is raised in this book. But I am glad that you and Siddiq are safely here. . resulting in the latter to take shelter in Chittagong. Naturally. and threw down into the swamp a huge Log. Abid Bahar of the biological and social reproduction of group members. Maung: I think it is a good idea. Contrary to the myth.. Works like Aye Chan’s justify army’s brutal action to restrict movement on the Rohingyas.. I am praying for her. In his endeavor. (b) -ANC (Arakan National Council) of exiled Rakhine extremists in India (c) -ALP (Arakan Liberation Party) Rakhine’s armed-group (Burma—Thailand border) (d) -NUFA (National United Front of Arakan) Liberal pro-Rohingya Rakhine Alliance. Mohammad found more bodies. in the name of its fight for democracy while gain both financial and virtual inspirations from the West but unfortunately many of them promote xenophobic nationalism and obstruct democracy. we will not have anybody left in Arakan. lost their race” i. the negative impact of this system by Rohingyas themselves could not have been more than their Rakhine counterparts on the Arakanese society. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. defending human rights.”(3) In its attempts to scare away the Rohingyas. Thailand visited the Jame Mosque of Narathiwa on last Friday… Yonus.} Original Message from AYE KYAW to kunyia@freerohingyacampaign. A Statement made by the “Arakanese in USA.” Ignoring Important Facts about Burmese Invasion of Arakan The present author in his work also ignores other important issues. In the ensuing confusion she could not distinguish the others in her family. Muslims should continue to adapt culturally meaningful survival strategies such as educating themselves in Burmese. Bengali sources however. Burma Gazettier: Akyab District Vol. July 16.com. When questioned “why refugees were pouring into Pakistan from Burma. racial or religious group.org/ APO_ARN/ARAKAN. 1973. Siddiq: I think you are right but Mabud Bahi should also get married. with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves.. at night and day. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 53 The author says. we see Arakan as a province in Western Burma had been a peaceful place and from nowhere turned into a place of anarchy by the Burmese military and by certain Rakhine collaborator xenophobes.. . KHRG. 2003. Yangoon.. The King founded Buddhism as the state religion and appointed himself defender of the faith.New York {“This paper was written in response to a conference on the Rohigya and the democratic movement of Myanmar. Endnotes: (1) Civilization. parallel model to challenge the military. have officially adopted the name Rakhines. People wonder why? COLLABORATORS OF THE ARMY Most contemporary works on Burma blame the military for the present state of affairs in the country. Refugees interviewed for this research describe of uncertainty and stress among the minorities (due to the lack of respect to law by the chauvinists. families or individuals .. according to Buddhism. Perhaps the greatest of these was the assassination of Aung San. raping women. Department of anthropology. I don’t see any Dara or Salim here also… .. practice. 1990. Over the years.wordpress. The book was published in the United States. In the culture-shock for you.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 30. Mohamuni is not the Rakhine statue.000 prophets to our world. Aye Chan’s stand goes in favor of the military’s 1982 Constitutional Act which denied Rohingyas’s citizenship. but they outgrew it. 1948 Like the other discontented minorities such as Karen. and. Bengalis. During the UNu’s rule. L Win: How did the trouble for Rohingyas began in Arakan? Mabud: It actually began in 1942. from this point onward in Arakan we see the rise of two distinct people with two languages. a boat with loading lethal weapons such as—swords. biloos are there neither as gods or nor as the superhuman but as demons to be feared and desired to be destroyed as we see in the Indian Ravana as a demon king that was defeated by Rama. otherwise a xenophobic writer. which I sincerely hope to change in the second edition.. and take women with them to the camp.. Aye Chan now eulogizes the alleged discriminatory policy by the British. and 1992. then to Raujan and then to Diang of Chittagong. At the same time. 1992. 4. Shah Suja’s death. a Canadian artist. this is my friend Stephen.” (an unpublished paper) in Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan Workshop. (6) Teach them through telling Rohingya history. Then the greatest hero of the Frogs jumped upon the Log and commenced dancing up and down upon it. (Siddique with L Win’s help serves the breakfast. the tension is prevailed at the border areas. the present capital of Arakan. Chittagong: Chawdhury 1975 in Bengali. Crackdown on Burmese Muslims. The administration by martial law began in Akyab District on 13 April 1942 and with this racial tension burst to the surface. nor the Rohingyas nor the Chittagonians have learned Bengali from Bangladeshi Bengalis. Another issue of interest. Bengali soldiers of Wali Khan and Sandikhan. in Japan. majority of the Chakmas slowly moved from Southern Chittagong to the north to Raozan then to East of Chittagong Hill Tracts where they live today.. Combined Immigration and Army Operation—January 1955 07. 2008 http://newsfrombangladesh. in spite of the fact that Rohingyas make up almost half the population of Arakan [47%. We urge the Government of Myanmar to repeal or amend the 1982 Citizenship Law to ensure compliance of its legislation with the country’s international human rights obligations.. On March 22. “raksa” the “primitive tribes” the prehistoric negroite so-called Rakkhasas. There must be a way to break the ice to be recognized as a member of Burma’s ethnic groups.” Mighty Jove. fact and opinion. In retrospect.” (See no evil. Aye Chan seems oversimplified the complexities of Arakan history and says. both human and animal. mosques. http://www. since I speak your language. 1975-1988 ONE PARTY SOCIALIST PROGRAM RULE 1978 Rohingya exodus of 207. My father—Mr Hafizur Rahman—was a Rwasugri (Headman) and was respected by all in our Ooksoo. Rakhapura. the identity Rohingya as a survival mechanism has been important and useful to you. it is evident that both the military and the democracy movement leaders use religion to 204 Dr. He shows the rise in anti-Bangladesh. Bangladesh and India. and in Centre for development studies… ponder and think and believe. After this event Arakani Moghs denied their allegiance to Bengal Sultanate in Gaur. in the role of a researcher.( the Arakanese Rakhine settlements in Bandorban and Cox’s Bazar. who had entered Arakan after 1826 as illegal immigrants. later an Assistant commisioner of Bengal.org/index2. According to science every one in the present world has roots in a group of people out of Africa.” they must be foreigners. of my work with Rohingya people.. their right to take part in the national affairs and administration has been snatched away. Burma is a far more complex society than this surface would suggest. It was a very beautiful bird. This seems tacitly tolerating and accepting the common Rakhine xenophobia even by this group against the name “Rohingya. “By this law those Muslims had been treated as aliens in the land they have inhabited for more than a century. Rohingya ancestors are more likely to be the aboriginals of Arakan. but the reality is different.” and “infectious” people. In the new jungle capital. Zohra Begum… The descendents of the mixed marriages between the local Dravadian Indians (Chandras) and the Arabs no doubt formed the original nucleus of the Muslim population of Arakan. no measures have yet been taken even to condemn the racist anti-Rohingya stances of the spurious democracy movement leaders such as Ashin Nayaka. “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms” in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan from Dhanyawadi to 1962.. I have already talked about good things in Canada. and there was nothing to be seen but “utter desolation . Abid Bahar that we came to Kanada. many Rohingyas from intermarriages have also developed Mongoloid features and most have Arakanese names. D.5 percent of the Bengali Muslims were found to be literate while the percentage for the Arakanese was 25. don’t kill the snake first. just prior to the Burmese invasion.time. to manifest his religion or belief in teaching.. Although many of these refugees have since then been repatriated to Burma. . a British historian. (9) III. Mohammed Ali. Arakanese in United States. Kirakini who is the internal enemy that kills the Rohingya energy and its international image. the Nazi Holocaust against the Jews during World War II has made this interpretation of sovereignty untenable. I am checking the watch. Nov. 27th October 1960. The Arakan before the war had been occupied over its entire lenghth by both Mussulman and Maugh (Arakanese).. the “kulas” are not the aboriginals of Arakan. don’t think about it now! (Amena’s pain increased. and freedom. Present day Arakan and its people are under the brutal oppression by the Myanmar junta. Formerly high-yield paddy fields of the fertile Kaladan and Lemro River Valleys germinated nothing but wild plants for many years (Charney 1999: 279). Research findings show that Rohingyas are not the only people who speak in a language similar to Chittagonian.org/index.. Abid Bahar Islam as a world religion exposed itself to all over the world. 1981. Those of you. He is getting very depressed. Abid Bahar. Baruas also call themselves as the Rajbanshis meaning the offsprings of the Moghs. .. He died instantly. Also see..” After crossing the river and getting down from the boats at Apawa. forced labor. Madame Chair. soldiers encouraged them to go.. We now know that based on this same principle of racial categorization. June. Gay McDougall. Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience 244 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 245 of mankind. Their studies have thrown much light on the economic life of the Mrauk U kingdom.1. which are a living lesson of history. there was one point in its history that Burma experienced a marked shift toward the model of democracy. . Rohingyas are not recognized as the “taingyintha” (indigenous) people of Burma for their racial differences with the Rakhines and the Burmans. The Rohingya Muslims in Northern Arakan State are the worst affected… This model of brutal oppression of minorities was so diligently practiced by Burmese rulers that. then with the entire family massacred. Contrary to Buddhist precepts. Siddiq: I have no money. VII.html Section 1: Burmese Muslims Muslims and Buddhists in Burma lived in relative peace until the beginning of Ne Win’s military rule in 1962.” 1958 Shan and Kachin revolt. “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms” (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan: From Dhanyawadi to 1962” 2005. (11) From our vantage point… Tokyo. (d) Myohaung in Akyab District 58 villages. some days we had fish and watery rice. Habibullah. Bengal witnessed. “My name is Chrisa. Harvey. 185 186 Dr. a native of Burma’s Arakan (Rakhine) province. Chattagramer Ittihas Prosongo (the old Society and Culture of Chittagong). he should not have taken up academic tools to fool people to preach the xenophobic survival myth for his Rakhine race. while Burman-Rakhines are entitled to have human rights. 1666 A. Siddiq: From the refugee camps. (spring. 1975. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. Rakhine and the Rohingya. there are still about 21. Suddenly.236 Appendix 7: Xenophobic Advertisement on Arakan Information Website Dehumanizing Rohingyas Being Influx Viruses . and confiscation of property continues.. It cited three reasons for this. Some of the party members went underground and into exile. it is up to the present so-called noncitizens such as the Rohingyas to prove the residence status of their ancestors. Chittagong: Arakan Historical Society. Pakistan Times 27th August 1959 1960 The Daily Guardian. Minorities culturally and racially different from the dominating Burmans have been uprooted from their localities under the pretext of being “Kula. Surprisingly. “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire.. What is Happening in Burma? http://www.. Aye Kyaw or the monk Ashin Nayaka. He gave our people so much trouble. it has been a historic trend that Rohingya people to escape repression in Arakan cross the Naff River and try to amalgamate with the Chittagonian people of Southern Chittagong. It was in 1978. Burmese ruler. if I lost track of it. just across the Naaf River in Cox’s Bazar. Abid Bahar and Pakistan. Rohingyas were being denied of Burmese citizenship.” It is a very strange assertion by a Buddhist monk who prefers to be addressed as the “Venerable Ashin Nayaka. as a result of such a genocidal massacre by the Burmese king. formerly a corporal from the Akyab District police force (Department of Defense Service Archives. Kirakini should have listened to your analysis. It operates at a level of skewed superior profits. . including food. The character Mabud is about them. and refugee resettlement agency. Mohamed Ali.. in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. or natives of Arakan.. that Aye Chan fails to provide a reliable source for his information. It seems that Bangladesh has been suffering from external aggression of refugee resettlement with Burma. Also in Michael Charney.. The current population of Myanmar Muslims are the descendants of Arabs. Article 2. Abid Bahar We reiterate the important role of minority rights in promoting equitable development. for a long time this remained a “no man’s land. It seems that the subsequent addition of Arabic and Persian with the original Sanskrit formed the basis of the original language of the Indian Chandras of Arakan. in the Arakan state of Burma. I couldn’t find them anywhere. under international pressure. Who are the Rohingyas? Rohingyas are an ethnic minority of Burma.. two hours later.. “You are a women like me. They have to live in the present as people of a modern province of Burma where citizens will have the protection of law from hooliganism.. USA (2005). The recently formed umbrella organization under the name of United Thinga Alliance in Bangladesh. Vol. in USA. Aye Kyaw confesses about his collaboration with the military junta to declare the Rohingya and some non Buddhist minorities as the noncitizens of Burma. In Burma with Rohingya—ethnic cleansing is going on and if allowed to grow. (5) I… “The creators of that term [Rohingya] might have been from the second or third generations of the Bengali immigrants from the Chittagong District in modern Bangladesh. have been 253 254 Dr.” (p.. Some officers we met on our way surprisingly didn’t want to harm us as long as we leave Arakan. The Naff River is a foot ball ground. .. Both authors claim that Rohingyas entered Burma after 1826. In this effort they identify the Rohingyas as being the “foreigners” in Arakan. By categorizing the Rohingyas as Burmese Muslims the nationalists find excuses for the Rohingya expulsion from Burma.. the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing. . No wonder.. India Office Records M/4/PRO: WO 203/5262). I finally arrived at the Naaf River crossing.. It might sound unusulal but to a careful researcher the name Arakan is also close to the Muslim name Al Rokon.. In this. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. I heard about the Rohingya boat people.” Let it go. intellectuals like Aye Chan and their nonintellectual followers even comically exclaim that they have never heard of the name Rohingya before the 1950s.. I will talk to Kirakini and write to the rohingyanet moderators separately. we see the trend began after the 1942 riots that each time the uprooted Rohingya Muslim from the south of Arakan wanted to return to his home. The Influx Viruses. It appears that even after the annexation of Arakan by Burma.. Dec. estimates that about 200. the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism. beginning to take even the clothes and then rice supplies.. Roy Cartlidge of BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 9 English department at Dawson College and Brian McFarline of the Plant and Facilities department.. the news of military tortures. She was put through another hellish experience. Aye Chan’s stand on contesting the validity of Rohingya’s origin in Arakan is clear..com/buddhism/buddhism-statistics.”(4) Contrary to Aye Kyaw’s claims of the origin of the Rohingyas Francis Buchanan found some people of Burma identifying themselves as Rohingyas in 1799 which was before the British occupation of Arakan in 1824. These are some of the medieval practices that the military has utilized without any remorse. if the Mongoloid Moghs defeated 98 Dr. these ultra-nationalists continue to justify that Rohingyas are not Burmese citizens. after 24 years of exile in Bengal. 4. Based on the military’s interpretation of history. it appears to be an anti-Bengali trends they follow in Arakan. My parents fearing that I will be picked up by them decided to send me out of Arakan.” http://bangladesh-web. After this event. In 1430 A. It was such a panic and a general sense of suffering on the rank and file members of the so-called “Kulas” (the Muslims of Arakan) that during the 1950’s it led them to identify themselves with a common secular name “the Rohingyas of Arakan. a Hindu Rohingya “was an officer of the police station of Ramoo. mother is not feeling well! (Mabud was on the computer in the next room) Mabud: What happened? Maa! Amena: It is not serious. Aye Chan. Here. The British left all these areas to the mercy of both Burmese and Arakanese dacoits. ban marriage. 50 Dr.” I realized that my mother is alive. Burma has also changed in other directions. U Shamsul. If we have couple of more people like you. Burma Rohingya Ulama Council in Malaysia (RUCM) National Democratic Party for Human Rights (exile) HQ… there seem to have been a small group of Muslim gentry at the court.. No.. Here people developed Arakan by practicing the art of civilization. .. To me. The point is if the stranded Biharis can have their rights to be the citizens of Bangladesh. and the world’s longest civil war continues. .. Mabud and Faroque continues the discussion) Mabud: Despite the fact that due to Burmese invasion of Arakan. Chattagramer Ittihas Prosongo (the old Society and Culture of Chittagong).org/cms/index. at night. the dark-skinned aboriginal Hindu Chandras and Muslim Chandra began to escape toward north and the Rakhines remained largely in the South. 246 Dr. The question needs to be asked: What actually went wrong to cause the military to come to power? Admittedly. he however. in co-operation with the United Nations.. my Poori. it is the same “Yian ki. I needed that. Democracy in Burma 2007-08-09 08:57:32 http://www. Shwe Lu Maung’s The Price of Silence.. who is that girl? Siddiq: I know the details. (10) Buddha would be mortified at such behavior. Arakan was ruled by an Indian dynasty called the Chandras until 957 A. there were about thirty-five thousand Arakanese who had fled to Chittagong district in British India to seek protection in 1799 (Asiatic Annual Register 1799: 61. Emphasizing the ethnic dimension of the problem. you are holing a pen. in this “marginal land. and that formerly high-yield paddy fields of the fertile Kaladan and Lemro River Valleys germinated nothing but wild plants for many years.. peace and stability.. It is a simple truth that Christians would build church. 25.. In doing so. p98.82 “Kulas”: The Aboriginals of Arakan . like the Rakhines. during the long military rule since 1962 the army had conducted armed operations against the Rohingyas almost every year under the aegis 238 Dr. but while promoting racism.S. Myin Bya. He quotes Sithu-Gammani-thinkyan. they are forced to provide free labor for the construction of different roads and accommodation facilities for the government forces… for it is the Rohingya image. To the military rulers. Pauktaw.. the latter a subgroup of the Burmans.. But worst of all. With me there were many other people leaving the village. p2. What is behind all this? 1. Through its use of xenophobia as an ideology. e. Some refugees have mentioned that it was not the government policy to kill. Abid Bahar Ph. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro. contrary to what Aung San..” (p. USA Burmese Rohingya Association in United Arab Emirate (BRA-UAE) National Council for Rohingya (NCR) Malaysia Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO) Arakan League for Justice and Freedom (ALJF). In Burma.3% and they are all considered Bangladeshis. The genocide is for Rohingya’s racial differences with the Rakine and the Burmans. 2005. She came to live with us. the names of places such as Ak-ab (one river) similar to Punjab (five rivers) had been changed. After all the developing and democratic Bangladesh walking on a tight-rope can not afford to take things for granted.” Mabud: Look. Tanchainga (in the central Chittagong Hill Tracts).. The army was quickly approaching us. 2007.” (p. As part of a growing contemporary Arakanse popular literature. It appears that before the Marma group’s (Rakhine) successive invasions of Arakan from the South. worship and observance. the xenophobic literature judge Rohingyas differently. a war criminal that demands to be investigated and exposed to the world. But even when the name was there in use. Rohingyas were the hardworking peasants.. Compared to Canada.. The rest were considered as “foreigners. Sadeq. Siddiq: You will sit with mother and we will serve you.. Also see Francis Buchanon in South East Bengal (1798) His journey to Chittagong. Besides. our future is in the Middle East and in Bangladesh. It is true. I remember I was very happy to find my family.com. one of Voltaire’s sayings naturally comes to mind: “Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.” It is an irony that Aye Chan used such faulty categorizations of the 18th century to identify Arakanese people of our modern times by race and religion to determine their native status and their citizenship rights. We came to a new country called Kanada we can now call our own. many of these anti-Rohingya works are naive propaganda excuses to get rid of the Rohingyas from their ancestral homes.” “foreigner. Kirakini associates with all kinds of people who are there to create confusion against the Rohingya nation.. has the army continued to rule a population of 50. a Pali word referred to a people originally came from Magadha of India. Rakhines have to share the scarce resources with the Rohingyas is clear. Also see Willem van Schendel (ed. There she and others were forced to welcome the soldiers between their parted thighs. it seems to praise the Tibeto-Burman Buddhist rulers who freed Arakan from the Chandra Rakkhas rule.. Abid Bahar migrants from Chittagong. A peaceful nation makes a peaceful world.. In addition. what makes the NRC invalid and requires amending the citizenship law by the military government? It seems that it is not the Rohingya’s origin in Arakan that is the issue here but it is the military government’s genocidal strategy to get rid of an undesirable group—the Rohingyas. Uddwa Kowora Koawari Goirto Chaii!! (Kirakini is like a dog! His habit is always to bite people) Saiful: Ethar Oiezza Oal Ethaar Bilai. we are not a violent people. By this system the British administrators granted the Bengali landowners thousands of acres of arable land on ninety-year-leases.. Jaffor Kawwal. the author of “Influx Viruses. “‘Enclave’ with ‘Influx Viruses’ Revisited.. 168. xenophobia and related intolerance. He is a guest in my house. L.. the suffering of the minorities continues. It had turned out to be another excuse as if like in the wolf vs. Don’t worry but. “Present at that meeting in his office was U Kyaw Nyein who later became Misnister of Education. Rakhaing was used after the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-11826) in its strictest geographical and political sense. conceptualized it as being a “failure.. we know that the Chandras of Arakan in the south began to be heavily inhabited and absorbed into Mogh’s Theraveda Buddhism and the north have subsequent Muslim influence from especially Persian and Bengali culture that continued more vigorously when in 1430 Arakan became a province of Bengal. the Simon Commission was appointed by the British Parliament to enquire the opinion of Burmese people for the constitutional reforms and on the matter of whether Burma should be separated from Indian Empire. It seems from the 16th century this region became the land of the Rohingyas who originated from Bengali slaves… the year British occupied Arakan and are therefore the “foreigners” in Arakan. that was my beautiful Rohingya girl. (f ) The Narinjara News (NN).. She wept throughout this account. when Aye Chan says “ . What is at issue here is that Moghs are the Tibeto-Burman Mongoloid people and the Rakkhases or the Kulas were the Hindu-Muslim Chandras. in the first Sino Burman war. Link: Source http://www. See the Rohingya Radio.000 solders helped restore Noromikla as the king. Mabud came to Kanada several years earlier. somebody shot the singing bird and I saw it fallen injured on the ground.. For your conspiracy and badmouthing. the number of refugees identified as being 10. Chakma and Rohingya’s relative darker complexion also testify that both must have intermixture with the local dark skinned so-called Rakkusha (bilu) Mohayana Buddhist Chandra population of Arakan. soldiers started saying publicly. an Arakani reactionary monk.hrw. whenever there is a repressive xenophobic regime in Burma. one day. Abid Bahar. Historically speaking there had been several major sources of Rohingya settlement in Arakan. they have had sharp differences with Moghs (Rakhines)..” for “Bilu is associated with Yasasa and Yakkha” in Burmese. both groups have developed their separate language and culture but until recently have recognized on one common Arakan history. Abid Bahar Lately. sobbing. . that they should speak good Burmese.ovimagazine. In 1991-92 it exterminated 250. as its benefactors or protectors. Contrary to the typical anti-Rohingya claims that they have never heard of the term Rohingya. I also came originally from Southern Chittagong of Bangladesh. Mohammad spoke to a few survivors of the January 3 group. Amina: You aren’t joking with me! Are you? Siddiq: No maa. whose decedents now live in southern Chittagong. Buddhists and Muslims work together for the PEACE in WorldRakhing and the etymology of “Rakhanpura.. (20) Abid Bahar. surprisingly even the more recent. Due to such a policy. despite the memories of horror. see Marwaan Macan-Markar. the husband of Sita had a fight with Ravana. People also started running from different villages of our Ooksoo. and misrepresenting Buddhism. public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. particularly to the Rohingya woman Zohra. He calls them as “Influx Viruses”..” “They must be “Bengalis” “immigrant” “Kula” and thus the contemporary anti-Rohingya propaganda began. part 2.. (4) The Urdur (sic) Language must be acknowledged as the national language of the Muslims in Arakan and be taught in the schools in the Muslim areas. [2] the mens rea of the offence. have not yet learned to be compassionate toward minorities. which should be protected and cultivated. Rohingya Refugees in Chittagong during U Niu’s period (1948-1962) In 1948 Burma became independent from British rule. speak Burmese. . Bangladesh should continue to seek Burmese people’s friendship but should also watch out the developments in Burma and should keep an eye on the presence of some Arakani anti-Bengali ANC activists working as refugees in Bangladesh and in India. It is to note that Rohingyas are not from a single race or culture. On April 7. God.. the Rohingya issue will be recognized which in the end will displease the mainstream Rakhines in Arakan. Muslim couples had to pay exorbitant fees to get permission to marry.” On the contrary. You should know that unlike Burma. the Rakhines and the Rohingyas. supposedly a monk. Before the beginning of the Second World War a political party. “Come. (16) Julian Ruth notes “His Holiness Ashin Adissawuntha. The catastrophic events of 1942. Burma’s missing dots are not to be found in the differences between the military regime and the democracy movement. It says.. has made no headway towards improving the situation. Once I attended his speech. Muslims should find ways to bridge friendship with their fellow Buddhist citizens. nationalism ought to seek a compromise with pluralism. and thus deprived these poor people of the property. I can see more mothers present to hear me than the Rohingya fathers. 172 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 173 How is this possible? The recently arrived Rohingya refugees from Arakan show some of them are not even as old as 5 years to enter Burma in 1825? Strange logic indeed. For the continued oppression.] The reason for such a nonchalant. I heard a whispering sound. Justifiably.. “In 1894 there were nine Urdur (sic) schools with 375 students in the whole district. became twice the President of Hindu Mahasabha in 1930s. Rohingyas can not be Chittagonians. unfortunately. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State.. as if the wolf now can easily justify the lamb responsible for mudding water.” Here he identifies his fellow countrymen as the “so-called Rohingya..” This is similar to India’s BJP party’s Hinduanization of the Muslims of India that Muslims should call themselves as the Hinduanized Muslims with Rama as one of their prophets. it asks a xenophobic question. Bangladesh. Aye Chan identifies the Rohingyas as the non-natives of Burma who. A witness to the Pegu mosque attack of 1997 related that one attacker. a terror at once to themselves and to their neighbours.. Charney says. Muslims should continue to adapt culturally meaningful survival strategies but also develop local roots that are both appropriate and contextual or in the face of challenges just abandon their identity. He preferred to call his own community—Rakhines. or a beast on the land from Chatgaon to Jagdia. among the people Budapawa carried with him were Rohingyas. it is the military leaders’ deep commitment to keeping “true Burma” together by force and driving “radical” elements out.”(20) However..1].. In this. Aye Chan contributes the first chapter. spoken by the Mohammadens. who took refuge in India. (e) Kyauktaw in Akyab District 78 villages. religion or nationality. one can also ask whether like the prominent Muslim leaders of the past. These are the circumstances under which military rule through xenophobia is carried out in Burma. in the face of international pressure. these Arakanese Muslims were later branded in the British record as “Chittagonian”..209 What is Genocide? . The last sermon of Prophet Muhammed can be said “the fist Human right declearation in the histroy of the world”. But Rama.” There have been complaints that many high ranking democracy movement leaders even espouse the military’s anti-ethnic Rohingya agenda.D. pumped up in prejudices. lately said. D. Arabs. Some people of the Mayu Frontier in their early seventies and eighties have still not forgotten the atrocities they suffered in 1942 and 1943 during the short period of anarchy between the British evacuation and the Japanese occupation of the area… talks about Arakan as being Rakhaing.” Strangely though.. In India and Bangladesh. According to this Act. intended to intellectually belittling the Rohingyas history.000. Despite Burma’s unfriendly gestures. (9) But if they lived in southern Chittagong during this Mogh rule of Chittagong.. It says: In his reign several ships were wrecked on Ramree Island and the crews. They say Rohingyas are Chittagonians but I checked the history of our people and found that BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 137 British historian Francis Buchanan found the name Rohingya in 1798… Rakines males normally love to enjoy entertainment than do the hardwork. one day. that is my story (Mabud said sobbingly)..185 Section 1: Burmese Muslims . Why? It hurts me to see your and your BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 147 friend’s mindless actions. With no running water and sewage facilities. Today. It is normal to have problems and face many new problems. “At the same time.” In Aye Chan’s co-authored book. Article 27. Rohingya mothers must have so many good stories to tell to their children. Indeed.. Human Rights Watch/Asia. both adult and boys. and for some time the Frogs went 152 Dr. (19) Jacques P. based on our research of the Chakma and Rohingya’s linguistic similarities.” Mohammedans”. it becomes an academic responsibility for the latter to provide the bibliographical 54 Dr.” a species of Fascism.” I tried to drag my father. wao global@yahoogroups. it is reasonable to assume that at the time of invasion there could be equal number of Rohingyas and Rakhines in Arakan.. the term Rohingyas was also officially adopted over half a century ago for people who were previously known as the “Kulas” (original Pali. Another Yoke on Rohingya Muslims. with Kifl being the Arabic rendering of the name of Buddha’s native kingdom.Burma’s Missing Dots T H E E M E R G I N G FA C E O F G E N O C I D E ESSAYS ON CHAUVINISTIC NATIONALISM AND GENOCIDE IN BURMA WITH THE POPULAR NOVEL ROHINGYAMA Dr. Ibid. Abid Bahar (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) Ibid. a “Frontier culture” Arakan for its location between South Asia and South East Asia. July 16. 1962-1974 MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF NE WIN AND BURMESE GENOCIDE 1962 2nd March General Ne Win (1911-2002) took over power. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 161 From a distance. This ‘breakdown’ of the labor force can be explained by the fact that Rohingya (generally agculturists) had left Arakan to settle in Chittagong.D.. He is a human rights activist helping our people. the ANC. org/bmc/index. Muslims had to apply the permits for each cattle and strictly follow under police supervision.. Rohingyas lost almost everything. I saw camps set up everywhere. Leider used the term “marginal culture” for Arakan. Today Rohingyas are a stateless people. A. (2) 122 Dr. Surely. They have no food. the aboriginal dark skinned Rakhangyas as the aboriginals sounds more probable. “Arakan Studies: Challenges and Contested Issues. 1975. the peaceful demonstrations staged by Buddhists have tended to achieve no practical results. 2007. Despite all the historic blood litting continued trend of possession and dispossession in this frontier region. .com. or to attacks upon his honor and reputation. some 100. On March 10. the latter is the causin of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi APPENDIX 5 FAREWELL Ahmedur Rahman Farooq provided a captivating account of his farewell to Arakan Farewell to Motherland by Democracy in Burma 2007-07-27 09:42:11 http://www. (22) Jacques P. some Brahmin informants from Arakan “called themselves Rossawn. including article 7 of the Convention of the Rights of the Child and article 9 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. and to return to his country.”(9) When Aye Chan asserts that Rohingyas are illegal immigrants. Habibullah reports.. Junta reaffirms noble history of military http://www.. “All Muslims should go to your homeland of Bangladesh. Bahar makes a genuine contribution by filling the missing dots with knowledge. whereas a democratic reform and the establishment of a modern sense of equality and justice will take away such a privileged position from the Rakhines as the absolute owners of Arakan. Essentially. “Arakan had been an independent kingdom before it was conquered by the Burmese in 1784. I was surfing the net and came across several interesting websites. she wanted me to her side once in a while and nothing in return. In the interfaith dialogue. U Nu assured us that there will be peace. international Agencies working with refugees report Rohingya’s horror stories. they seem to be only taking advantage of Bangladesh’s liberal tradition. http:// groups..org/index.P. young people serve older people? Mabud: Siddique.. Iman: What happened after? Mabud: I couldn’t forget Arakan where I left my father and Poori Apa. When Rohingyas are by birth the citizens of Burma.. peace and stability..” It is important to note that Rohingyas developed from several origins of people mainly from Indo-semitic background. I also came first to Canada’s Ontario province and have learnt things about Canada. from Azarbil.” Swapna Bhattacharya says.. Rohingyas are simply Arakani Muslims. and. In addition. I don’t know how you can call yourself a good Muslim. and a myth of the “Rakhine supremacy. I think aunty should take rest. I am a Burmese.. (4) Rohingya mothers do not allow drinking. he invaded Arakan. and the right to security in the event of unemployment. keeping this Declaration constantly in mind. . Muslims helped Arakan to regain its Independence from Burma. other than his postings… you taught me how to find you in the hide and seek game. (Windsor: University of Windsor. You need brain to help your community. how to educate your children in Canada.M.102.com CHAPTER 7 HISTORY OF THE ROHINGYAS IS THE HISTORY OF SUFFERING (This paper was first published in the News from Bangladesh on November 09 2005) Burmese military and the local ultra-nationalists have been trying to classify the citizens of Burma on the basis of religion and race. We urge the Government of Myanmar to repeal or amend the 1982 Citizenship Law to ensure compliance of its legislation with the country’s international human rights obligations. receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. the Rakhine against the Rohingyas. to a certain extent.. to be honest. Also see Rohingya Refugee Report http://web. 1981. but the racism of the Karen against the Burmans. At last we reached the bank and got onto the boats. I remember vividly. Questions often asked 188 Dr. Abid Bahar promised to return the twelve towns of Bengal.. Rohingya BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 259 people are yet to be taken decision whether they will go to mosques or not defying the order. the Persian soldiers during the Narameikhla’s time and afterwards. Hi Faroque! Come in. who is going to marry me? Amena: My Rohingya boys are very handsome.. (1) His work even outlines the common issues of dispute surrounding the Rohingyas with the Rakhines. June 23.. June 1986.” Before the lamb jumped from the clip to save him said. 15) In the above.. compassionate and respectful people. “Rohingyas are Chittagonian” “illegal immigrants” and “influx viruses. Exclusion may start with name-calling. I saw so many people dying. Article 20. October 2006.000 Rohingyas in Bangladesh… The name is: “Mother Earth and her Fulsome Face!” Today far away from my motherland.S. In terms of democratic thinking in Arakan. said to have been Mohammadans. the oppression by the Burmese rule was so fearsome that some Rohingyas must have returned only as seasonal workers considering the fact that Arakan was still in anarchy and Rohingyas had termed it as a (Mogher Mulluk) lawless society. The two brothers were chasing us with long knifes. I would like to thank especially Mira Malidzanovic for accepting this painting from me on the theme: Rohingya people. It was in 1044 A. The Burmese military government accordingly executes the policy. Amena: I was only 8 years old. has the right to social security and is entitled to realization.. In this frontier land of Mongoloid and Indo-Semite population. . 40-57.000 Bosnian Muslims at Srebrenica constituted genocide. One night at around 2 a. Mohiuddin in New York and and many other younger ones. April 19. Freedom for the people of Burma cannot be denied. Article 25. Burma Territorial Force (BTF)—Operation 1949-50 03. Aye Chan bottled up in pride and prejudices. This is welcome news. .” (6) “Over the decades. the word “Mogh” has derived from Indian Buddhist origin of identifying the locals as the Rakhhas. Today most Rohingyas are in favor of their reconciliation and justice through democratic reform in Arakan. and the massive Bengali slaves exported to Arakan that had culminated to a large “Kula” population in the Kaladan valley of Arakan. Like you. Aye Chan’s article creates trepidation and suggests to the xenophobic Burmese the issues to consider dealing with the Rohingyas. Driven out of Arakan some of these Rohingyas went back to Arakan and others settled in Southern Chittagong.. In making this type of statement the confusion Aye Chan created here is in his expression that Rohingyas are illegal settlers in Arakan. Aye Chan says… As soon as he is in north Arakan. “I love you” But sorry mother. Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper. Such dark-skinned people could be found in the costal areas extending from from the Red sea bordering Africa. (Concordia University. 4) The system of license and brokerage. an immigration officer in 180 Dr. This assertion seems more probable because Chittagonianin language is a Sanskrit based proto Bengali with heavy Persian influence. Remember. I remembered her face . they took her after killing the husband.18. 15) Aye Chan hesitates to go beyond 1950. Fatema and her son had fallen behind. Chakravarti. While searching the houses of the Rohingyas. KHRG report: Background on Burma. Issue 13 Asia Watch Reports the following: “Summary Executions As some of the above accounts indicate. Parents teaching children values can control them even when they are away. it is these writers’ incitation and collaboration with the military government for its human rights violations and producing refugees that makes Arakan notoriously famous in abroad. (Amena goes inside to take a break. Among them are the Chakmas (Northern Chittagong Hill Tracts). Abid Bahar pro-Rakine. Although it is not accepted as a fact in academia.. “What happened?” He finally broke his silence and said: “Our great leader Aung San was killed. non-violent group. that is what you are! I am an educated person. “ . (p. reject law except their own. Source: http://www.. the military government accepted the Rohingya citizens. In 1979 I came to do my studies where I wrote my thesis on the Rohingyas.. Unfortunately. Aye Chan. humiliation and mutilation that occurred in Rwanda in 1994 “resulted in the physical and psychological destruction of Tutsi women. Consequently. drug use and extremism in their children. Your father was an MP from our area.” Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn. the 1942 is a single event that displaced Rohingyas from the South to the northern Arakan. 22 Dec 2007 06:30:50-0800. This work with minor modifications could be turned into a drama. the latter name said to be historically used by the Burmese for them. This is because mothers keep looking after their children in their large families and provide care to the young one. The various groups of Myanmar Muslims are: (1) Panthay (Burmese Chinese Muslims). Chakma differences with Rakhines While Chakmas are racially similar with the Moghs. But in Arakan.. 138 Dr. jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs. The Arakani Sanskrit chronicles were rewritten in Burmese along with a tendentious interpretation of events entered into Arakani history. As a matter of duty and also to discourage the reactionaries and their pretensions the actors of these crimes against humanity should be brought to public attention.. The author demonstrates that ever since the military plotted its coup and illegally seized power in 1962. a term was coined for Arakan of now Burma as the “Moghur Mulluk” meaning the land of lawless people. Recently he gave testimony to the US senate led by United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. Aye Chan describes. See Chakraverty. Tell me. and from Portuguese decendents.. Let’s pray. Tokyo.) In Bengali it would be “Ami Jabo Na. 09. Thursday. Worst of all. 14-33. There are approximately 5 million people.. one day young Rohingya people will become BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 171 leaders in Canada in education. They are also respectful to others and very hospitable. you are the one in our community. 1995p. they neither included the Rohingya refugees that left Arakan due to Burmese King Budaphya’s invasion in 1784. Dhaka: Co-operative Book Society Limited).. reporting for Reuters from Dhaka. Rohingya Muslims. Mrohaung became a populous sea port. “they lost their religion-Buddhism. From the present survey. Rohingyas are generally a peaceful community and have even officially adapted a common secular name “Rohingya” for both the Muslims and the other dark skinned people of Arakan demonstrating their growing modern and secular outlook.com/2009/oct/19/edit.. this has to change.. From the times of Sindhi Khan who conquered Arakan.. Rakhines listen to their own ideas. how long? I can’t anymore bear” A Rohingya woman. human rights practices within states came to be defined as “legitimate sources of international concern. economic. however.com/time/asia/covers/1101021216/newin. Montreal.. Also in Michael Charney.. (37)To him.. ‘Easy Targets: the persecution of Muslims in Burma. . “To justify such claims political Rakhine intellectuals also add that in Buddhism there is the existence of Rakkhasa biloos. When Rohingyas as Burmese are made into strangers by the Rakhine gentlemen like Aye Kyaw…” I saw her fleeing with the crowd. a native of Chittagong District. Abid Bahar Arakanese monks of the saffron revolution could be not so innocent after all. My father’s name is Rwasugri Hafizur Rahman.”(p… Rohingyas have a history in Burma dating back to the 8th century. UK Professor Abid Bahar is not a Rohingya. .” This is called Fascism. She crossed mountains and a river and found herself moved out to an unknown land. . We ask whether or not these areas would be in the newly created Rakhaing State under the new Federal Constitution? (2) Aye Kyaw’s student Aye Chan coauthored a book named “Influx Viruses” identifying the Rohingyas as mere “viruses” now live in “enclave” in Arakan. Chittagong came under the British rule. Buddha even visited Arakan. 1945. Arakan was occupied and destroyed by the Burmese since 1784. What is needed is to replace some of the spurious leaders who in the name of spirituality and democracy preach xenophobia. “Aye Chan is a native of Arakan State in Burma. when it takes less than a decade by Burmese (like Aye Kyaw) living in the West to become citizens of western countries. Everyone has the right to life.. In extreme form it is called racism. July 16.. but kill only a few. Rohingyamaa is about the universal story of grief and suffering commonly experienced by most refugee women. 2007 held in Tokyo. “ .. (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. Some of the movement’s members even accept the military’s definition of who is a native (“taingyintha” in Burmese translated as “native of a country) and who is a “foreigner… Cordova to gain things and I didn’t know that I would lose the only possession that—my mother once I had. Like the racist Rakhines he calls the Rohingyas. General Hossain Beg and General Umed Khan led the forces. Yakin. you are more likely to be a double agent. due to the military government’s propaganda. In these such situations. html. Here Rohingyamaa was caught in a “loop of events” that led her to travel back in time. 16) 58 Dr. As a democracy movement activist recently he said to the US Senate. Farkan and Hasan. Here people can elect their leaders. encouraging tolerance among communities.narinjara. Japan 227 228 Dr. Rohingyas even had central government ministers elected from them but were dismissed by Ne Win’s military government. 1942 Rohingya armed resistance movement… The British provincial administration appointed a deputy inspector for Muslim schools and in 1902 the number of schools rose to seventy-two and the students increased to 1. we see Rohingya people even have their language called Rohingyalish and a literature which has similarities with both the Rakhines and the Bengalis. The coins of Wasali had the image of Siva engraved on it. It is about the fear of strangers. while he gave importance to certain issues. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 31 in Arakan is a suspect of being a “Kula. Official claims that the refugees are “illegal immigrants”—Asia Watch CHAPTER 3 RACISM IN BURMA: AYE CHAN’S “ENCLAVE” WITH “INFLUX VIRUSES” REVISITED (This chapter as a paper was first presented at the International Conference on “Problems of Democratic Development in Burma and the Rohingya People” organized by Arakan-Burma Research Institute held in Tokyo on July16-17. contradicts popular knowledge such as among various ethnic communities inside Burma. As a result. In this book… choppers.172 Burma’s Anti-Rohingya Xenophobes . they couldn’t be given Burmese citizenship. Due to their racial differences with the Burmans. Genocide: A Sociological Perspective.. some other days we ate meat and watery rice.org/freeburma/ethnic/rohingya1. I didn’t want to go but the authorities forced us back. When this happens. Wali Khan was killed in the battle and his followers were allowed to settle near Kalander River. Muslims are still considered as “foreigners” in Burma. excessive taxing. The general character of the Arakanese Mogh rule during this time is described vividly by Shihab-ud-din Talish “The Mogh did not leave a bird in the air.. it is 5:45 a.. there is a racially Mongoloid group a subgroup of the Chakmas called Tanchangyas (Tan-chang-gya) who have the same last part of the name “gya” as the Rohingyas (Rohin-gya). The city’s Rohingya name Akyab was also changed into Sittwe and Rohingya historic places were even demolished to confirm that Rohingyas are simply “foreigners” in Burma. the Rakhine villagers nearby Rohingya villages were not able to attack the Rohingya villages. The military operation against the Rohingyas “Dragon King” was going on. racially and religiously different from the majority Rakhines have been identified as being the Bengali “Influx Viruses” and “foreign intruders” demanding that they be exterminated. This culminated on February 12. . Then he was crucified-nailed to a three with his arms stretched wide. It seems that Rohingya refugee problem are symptoms of Burma’s hate crimes by the illegal army and its anti-Rohingya associates Aye Chan or Aye Kyaw. In the Ananda Chandra’s Chandra inscription. and to guarantee that the right to nationality as enunciated in article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 5 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination finds meaningful expression within Myanmar’s borders. the proto-Chittagonian Bengali…. Lusanne. (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. like Punjab in India. it is also important that Muslims by religion are obliged to know and learn to live in their environment. (2) But BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 103 in the 1991-92’s again there was the fresh eviction of refugees. the first independent Muslim ruler of Arakan.bmnetwork. One Aye Chan published a book called Rohingyas as the “Influx Viruses. the leaders of the opposition democratic movement could not develop an effective. (5) Harvey says. his uncle and many neighbors. the Arakannse king promised to return the twelve feuds of Chittagong.” The international community should know that those people in the democracy movement leadership who receive huge donations from Western democracies in the name of promoting democracy in Burma are tolerating the military’s exclusion of the Rohingyas from Burmese citizenship. FIDH International Federation of Human Rights says: The . much later than Rohingya Muslim’s arrival in Arakan in the 8th century.. p2. the British policy was to encourage the Bengali inhabitants from the adjacent areas to migrate into fertile valleys in Arakan as agriculturalists.. entitled “Armed Forces Day resolve” states “With secure Road Map. There had been a great number of people captured and taken to Arakan. sustained regardless of the surrender or lack of threat offered by the victim. Before I came to Canada.. hyenas on Africa’s Serengeti picking off old and sick gazelle or wilder beast and making a meal. Aye Chan names the Rohingya returnees as the “Chittagonians. Not long ago it sentenced to death some Muslim religious extremists causing violence. 252 Dr. however. Therefore. we left everything behind. The proponents of the “Rakhine supremacy myth” with their “purity of Rakhine race” theory desire to get rid of the Rohingyas from Arakan. as it offers the opportunity of supplementing one’s salary with the proceeds of black-marketing. For the military. 1784 Burmese king Budapawa attacked Arakan with 30. who were also known as the sudras. Compassion and forgiveness but not arrogance and egoism are the leadership qualities. This was possible in the north because of the continued presence of Muslim population. his hypothesis appears to be no more than what is based on his anti-Muslim built-up prejudices. Habibullah.) Mabud: If I get married. banglarnari@yahoogroups. Hamdan: But how are we going to ignore Kirakini.mcgill. As a result of riots in 1942. Rohingya mothers stay home to care for children’s home-work and caring. He met some Burmese people who called themselves as the Rohingyas. such as prejudice..D. Many of the latter opportunistic people brand themselves even as the leaders and activists of the democracy movement. in identifying this.. These captives no doubt formed the bulk of today’s Muslim Rohingya people of Arakan with their Bengali physical features.”(4) And in the post-Nuremberg world. including his own. We have seen scores of such migratory patterns throughout human history. 130 Dr. Dec 6. Historically speaking. This unfortunate event took place just six months before the independence of Burma.. . (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity. !!!i.. Before you had no country. My thanks to my colleagues. I spotted a woman with a child. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. There we have over 700.126 Problems and Prospects of Growing Up in Canada: The Case of Rohingya People .. in the future democratic Burma. Aye Chan says. which is popularly known as Dragon King (Nagaminh). Aye Chan says. I especially dedicate this work to the brave mothers. we are stateless people! Even now unofficially we have over 200.000 to 200.. Now I will explain to you my 7 rules to educate young Children in Canada My 7 rules (suggested) to Educate Young Rohingya Children in Canada (1) It says. He was sentenced to 47 years imprisonment on 29 July 2005. After the massacre of the Moghul prince and the chain of events of repeated uprising led to internal 101 102 Dr. People called her the lily of the valley. closed the road so well that even the snake and the wild could not pass through. or arrests for minor offences and demands for high bribes in exchange for release. when you were crossing through the immigration.” they cried. It was also published on line website… I came to the end of the journey. “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms” (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan From Dhanyawadi to 1962: A conference Organized by the Institute of Asian Studies.. The nation was shaken. Rohingya History It is true. therefore. See Michael Charney “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms.. 1665 To avenge the death of the prince and to stop Mogh-Portuguese piracy in the Bay. Wiliam James rightly said: “A great many people think they are thinking when they are really rearranging their prejudices. this is a serious problem. just over four decades earlier. in the Diaspora in settlement in the Gulf States. as are some members of other ethnic communities have realized the adverse effect of xenophobia that provides the array for dispossession. Malaysia in 1993 at the International Conference on Indigenous people) The present research findings from cross checking of historic documents found that the so-called “kulas. because it will empower you.. Rangoon.. under national or international law.”..” (12) The authors of the “Influx Viruses” also didn’t identify the expulsion of Rohingya refugees that took place in 1958. as enshrined in the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic. Arakani researcher San Shwe Bu thinks the Chandras were from Hindu dynasty but followed Mohayana Buddhism. (1) What is the explanation to the conflicting claims? 84 Dr.” Aye Chan states “At first most of them came to Arakan as seasonal agricultural laborers and went home after the harvest was done. 200 to 250 people had gathered to hire boats to Bangladesh. 66 Dr. some Muslims were haunted by the specter of their future living under the infidel rule in the place where the baneful Arakanese are also living. Thanchingya’s are the close cousin of the Chakmas.. was known as one of the most violent kings of Burma. this is the typical Ashin Nayaka style of Burmese way to democracy.” Whose homeland? Isn’t Arakan supposed to be the homeland of its people? The ultranationalists like Aye Chan dreams of the revival of an independent kingdom that was lost to the Burmese.. now popularly known as the “Prophet of Violence in Arakan. we see several very important “dots” still remain to be joined before the real enemies of Burma are fully revealed. they are also the “Influx Viuses” needing to be exterminated. The Muslims in his area are not allowed to celebrate Muslim holidays. raksa had not been originally attributed to the Mranma later known as the Rakhing-tha. Surprisingly. .. Due to their origin in Arakan. (46) Cox’s Bazar’s Buddhist Pagoda. Therefore. I was hugely dehydrated and hungry. wrote that on March 4. Abdul Karim. “However. it “lays traps against the . 2005..org/library/pdf/ ASA160052004ENGLISH/$File/ASA1600504. it is pointless to debate on who settled where. that they preserved and promoted for many many centuries. it is not clear “in the light of ” what Aye Chan is trying to find the validity of the Rohingya’s Burmese ethnicity? In other words. 1948-1962 PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY 1948 Independence of Burma. He hates Bangladeshis.com/ PM.” Apparently. without any discrimination. Bahar’s numerous articles and research papers on Burma in general and Arakan’s volatile Rakhine-Rohingya relations in particular. Union of Burma. Sabe Operation February—1974-78 15.. I always look my mother as the sunflower to the Sun. 51. . Kei Nemeto was being harassed by the Rakhine ultranationalist hooligans. orchestrated by the Burmese government since 1948: 01. . a courteous but tough lady sits straight. The findings of the present research suggest that to fight a winning war. “Buddhism in Araka. 1666 The return of the defeated Mogh pirates to Arakan led to the beginning of anti Bengali. traditionally Burmese cruelty was such that “to break the spirit of the people. More research should be done to know the kind of norms the present intellectuals created that led to an anti-Rohingya xenophobic mainstream culture in Arakan. the xenophobic writers still continue to blame the Rohingyas as being “Bengali intruders.Vidyarthi & U. and then took over power in mainland Burma and began occupying the territories in the South. Thus. (Amena does the prayer.” America Burma Institute. Ashin Nayaka opposes the military rule in Burma but supports the military’s Rohingya extermination policy in Arakan. (40) In 1978.. (7) Teach children values such as to have empathy for refugee children in Thailand and in Bangladesh. which belongs to the Mahayana Buddhist tradition and must have predated the Rakhine arrival by some centuries. He says. an Arakani monk in encouraging the ultra-nationalists wrote in the forward section of the book Influx Viruses the same: “Rohingya movements have been accompanied by certain dangers and challenges.. We remind the Government of its obligation to protect all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction from any form of discrimination. according to a school teacher from the locality..” 1988 Sein Lwin: Known as the “butcher” was behind the crackdown of student uprising in 1988. my question to a xenophobe Burmese who says “I have never heard of the word “Rohingya. Sultan Jalaluddin’s army reestablished the deposed Arakanese king and helped to establish its historic city Mrohaung. The Eastern Bengal District Gazetteers. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 105 1433 Nadir Shah. I am tired of hearing that.. in Bangladesh.. Iman: Then what happened? Mabud: I looked back through the valley and I said one last “farewell to my motherland” and crossed the river to Bangladesh. I know some Bangladeshis really hate us. The Muslim gentry’s use of Persian and Arabic in the court was the fore bearer of today’s Rohingyalish language. Abid Bahar rays pass through the tree branches and immediately after you could see dew on the floor. Shamsul Alam Shah. at the same time Chan from his chauvinistic believes contradicting himself that Rohingyas in Butheding. USA. the Moghs turned the lower Bengal and some parts of India into a place of terror.. Feeling the threat of extinction. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar). this book will primarily deal with problems of democratic development in Burma. and Bangladesh-Burma relations. colour or nationalities and the Prophet Muhammed did the same.. P. Policy Options.. Chandra Buddhist synthesis One might wonder the unique nature of the Chandra kingdom.. Unfortunately. also your future lies also in knowing how you can help educate your young children as the Rohingya Canadians.. Rakhine sometimes applied to the Mogh or Buddhist population of Abakan….” While the name “Rohingya” was already existent in Arakan. also see Abid Bahar. Instead of that the more relevant question to be asked. He had many Rakhine friends.000 Rohingyas to Bangladesh) 19.” During the time of Japanese occupation.. reported by Garret Von Bergo..” (18) In 1960 The Daily Guardian. It clearly notes that the 1942 event resulted in population displacement of Rohingya Muslims from the south of Arakan (lived mostly by Rakhines) to the northern part of Arakan lived by the Rohingyas. ha.. except the one he found important useful for his explanation. Jacques P. Also in Willem van Schendel (ed. The problem is.. If she hangs the coat. democratic Arakan and Burma. about 3 hundred thousand Rohingyas fled to Bangladesh. 2005. Colonial Legacy The problem according to Buchanan is one of “a legacy of European colonial policy which showed little concern for ethnic and cultural realities when the frontiers of the former colonies were demarcated . (5) In other words. See Aye Chan’s. the Mogh pirates were reported to have been involved in an anti Muslim riot. Maritime boundary demarcation. Rohingyas are a very special people to me because somehow Rohingya history has became part of my life’s history. Until the fall of Gaur.) “Francis Buchanan in South East Bengal (1798): His journey to Chittagong. (5) R..”(6) During the invasion of Arakan.html. Mabud: No. Aye Chan. reactionaries and their pretensions in Burma. (originally a nonviolent religion. “Survivors were sent to Arakan proper and settled in villages. The Chakmas. Also see Chris Lewa. (4) Don’t discuss everything about adult life in front of children. the illustration of a dark-skinned Rohingya refugee family driven out of Arakan is now staying in the refugee camp in Chittagong. which most likely be the whole of southern Chittagong with perhaps twelve small feuds then under Mogh rule.. Because the Mrauk-U kings. Mabud: Can I get something for you. their names are deleted from their family lists. and more work has to be done to understand this side of the real Burma..”(15) The wind direction in the Indian Ocean especially during monsoon season has been such that lost sailors from Arabia.. . seminaries. Ignoring this vital information.. But. Shah Suja’s followers and Rohingya intermarriage with Rakhines. To make Arakan “great again. the Rakhine villagers tried to attempt to attack the Sonbonia and Nan Tha Daung villages of Maungdaw Township. Then they even adopted Chittagonian as the groups’ language of everyday transactions. says about the Rakhines. Thus.com/. Later with the passage of “The New Citizenship Law” in 1982. Burma was renamed “Myanmar.. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. I looked for my mother and Siddiq everywhere.com/2007/12/15/photos-of-antimuslim-riots-in-bagopegu/ (12) http://en. Likewise. He copied therefore the Moslem design. In pre British period.. This occurred only six months before the country’s independence. violence and discrimination against Burma’s Muslim minority has been commonplace over the last four decades. Islam became the ideological basis of the party (Khin Gyi Pyaw 1960: 99). home or correspondence. it is some opportunist Arakanese Rakine gentleman pumped up in prejudice. including the denial of the Rohingya’s citizenship rights by the military through its 1982 Burma Citizenship Law. Persians and Bengali Muslims settled both in Arakan and in its adjacent area in southern Chittagong..” held in Tokyo on July 16 and 17 2007. A DIVISION OF HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH May 7. it calls Arakan as Arakandesa. Noakhali and Comilla. Who is a Rohingya? Rohingyas originated from many sources but their common suffering and a common history made them one people called the Rohingyas.. 1970 Burmese government agreed that Rohingya areas to be ruled by the military with Arakanese Burmese in the administration. A conference was held in May 1948 in Garabyin Village north to Maungdaw and the name of the organization was changed to “Mujahid Party.. and even worse.. the Independent Expert on minority issues. she said not to kill. Abid Bahar (4) Survival of the Fittest: While the xenophobic military is to blame for the suffering of ethnic groups including the Muslims. From Dhanyawadi to 1962…. and Chins have similarities with the Nagas of India. eversince it has been either assimilation into Burmese Buddhist system called Burmanization or extermination.” [Palm-leaf manuscript 2. which has another inside it and so on.D. Despite his contradictions. it seems most of these refugee people from Arakan decided to stay in the peaceful Chittagong that was by then came under British rule. . About the author: Professor Abid Bahar. Kublaikhan’s Muslim Tatars attacked and occupied up to Nga Saung Chan. The Burman model of ruling by force while still claiming to be good Buddhists began in the time of the Pagan King.. The latter drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) APPENDIX 10 UNITED NATIONS PRESS RELEASE ON ROHINGYAS Tuesday. Mabud: Maa! Amena: I am not feeling well. In this never ending struggle. he seems to know about the Rakhine returnees as well but calls the latter as being returning to their homes.amnesty. Again.html (June 23. leading up to the rebellion against the institutional racism.” I want to ask you.. we took shelter by the street under a tree. she wept and I renewed my grips. Edited by Willem van Schendel.. Al Awwal) along with his father were captured by the Moghs from northern Chittagong. God bless Kanada and our Rohingya Children. Chakmas began to concentrate in northern Arakan and had the social pressure to abandon their original Mon language altogether and had to learn the Chandra Chittagonian language. the Shan people exhibit cultural and racial similarities with the Thais across the border. Abid Bahar Ya. 2006 Aung San Su Ki. “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire. Aye Chan and their followers.” The idea that Rohingyas were the aboriginal Dravadian (Rakkhasas) population of Arakan seems more compelling due to some startling similarities in language between some tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts (the Chakmas. the leader of the liberation movement. Sahab… arrived in Bangladesh on February 13. Abid Bahar. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy. an estimated 200. the genocidal operation in “Kyawktaw” (Township) was so fierce that the water of the “Kaladen River” got a crimson color with the blood of Rohingya victims. and Hindu population of Chittagong. 1957:29. there are many brave Rohingyamaas sending their children outside Arakan some of them losing their lives in unknown lands. But please put me on the bed. 2005. paranoid and oppressed. Before that Arakan was a great place. Enamul Haque considers that at this time.” The army barricaded our entire area. did you have good sleep? Amena: Yes.” http://bangladesh-web… Abid Bahar the military government that considers Muslims as only 24. majority of its people follow Buddhism as their faith. survivng as a Muslim in the Burmese Buddhist environment has become very challenging. This work identifies the Rohingyas as “foreigners.” meaning a lawless society of the Moghs. Muslims were supposed to excel but now he is saying Muslims remained backward. he is seen as the “dangerous Chittagonian” and are normally either killed or put in jail or pushed out of Arakan as a “foreigner. In their type of tagging.” I couldn’t serve you enough.. A SYMBOL OF THE UN’S SLOW PROGRESS IN HUMAN RIGHT’S DEVELOPMENT The three Strut Chair in front of the UN Human Rights Headquarter in Geneva.” Subsequent ICTR cases such as Kayishema. was named after the Kalah or the socalled foreigners. They swung the children “like sacks” by their ankles. is hardly committed to protecting minority rights. it is interesting to see similarities and differences in the Rohingya and Chakma grammar and vocabularies.. If we tentatively accept Aye Chan’s argument. But until now 194 Dr. found in the last item in the list.” paradigm. Causes of anti-Muslim xenophobia and genocide The present research found most observers blame the military for spreading anti-Muslim xenophobia. Aye Chan’s conclusion that if Rohingyas are tolerated. I was standing by the balcony and in my comatose mind I was also searching for my father and Poori. killings. and literature.. Finally the soldiers began pulling the smallest children from their parents’ arms. most people giving orientation are familiar with European traditions and you are of Asian and South East Asian origin. com/story_ main36. One possibility that the Rohingyas and the Chakams were the citizens of the Chandra kingdom of Arakan where they had already learnt Sanskrit zed Bengali prior to the establishment of the Mogh rule in Arakan. He says. Malaysia Ittihad-Tullab Al-Muslimeen (ITM)..” Similar Arab settlements were recorded in the other parts of southern part of Chittagong. due to the existence of some xenophobic but powerful Mogh leaders now leading the democracy movement in the Arakan province. in the name of democracy they are tolerating and some even promoting racism in Burma. And foreign-relied traitors. I met M. 30. The other criterion to justify citizenship. the military conducts intimidating night raids against the villagers. There is a culture of anarchy in Arakan. Iman: Did you read the Kaladan News? Faroque: what is it? There turmoil again began in Arakan. Actually the Moghs of Arakan were creating the trouble. in general. When tolerance level among the Rakhines went so low.40-57. the king of Arakan took shelter with his followers in the deep jungles of Chittagong where his decendents still live in Bandarbon. In southern Chittagong there had been some Arab. Sandathudamma.” In this book the authors identified Rohingyas as if viruses required to be exterminated. Persians. all the Rohingyas are Burmese born and were the citizens of Burma. so that they don’t continue to preach racism and develop both intellectual and economic backwardness in Burma. various forms of extortion and arbitrary taxation.htm Abid Bahar..org/index2. Dr. daggers. Under the circumstances. she will help you to organize your life. The democracy movement leadership in Burma in general and in the provinces like Arakan in particular is very weak. they also live in other parts of Arakan. 25) What does Aye Chan mean by “superseded the older. Look at his expression of humility. During the period of military rule. Both were rebels and fought against discrimination by the upper class. the Immigration Emergency Provision Amendment Act. During the 1960’s we had hardly any educated people. As the ICTY stated in 1999 in Jelisic.. “Burmese Muslims” and even “Indian Muslims. Here in his description. In spite of such flagrant contradictions. I will set the table for breakfast. . Doudou Diène. we used to hear all kinds of birds singing on tree branches every day. then to London.. (from) that we drew most of our “Scouts” and Agents. Rohingya people are coming out again to take shelter in Bangladesh.” 100 Dr. Persian influence in the region was so predominant that after the Burman invasion of Arakan. Since then.com/ history/history_maa.. From Dhanyawadi to 1962. and soon the crowd was completely surrounded. due to the continued Mongoloid invasions of Arakan. there was a general discontent.” Ashin Nayaka in encouraging the above ultra-nationalists wrote in the forward section of the book the following: “Rohingya movements have been accompanied by certain dangers and challenges. the United Nations approved the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. It is important to note that the statue was built during the reign of Indian Chandra king. The second one had to do with the armies of Wali Khan and Sind Khan settled in the Kaladan River valley.” Saiful: It has been going on for so long! Some of our people are also not enlightened enough to understand that we have to create pressure from outside. They have their birth rights to be alive with dignity like others. place names. But it is the story of the kings.241 Appendix 9: Universal Declaration of Human Rights . However.. and the young Girls they took without any consideration of their parents.. Did you know that even the name Rakine was also newly adapted during the 1940’s? They were identified in British records as Moghs.. you did the right thing not going to Malaysia by boat. He is worst on the rohingyanet. because such groups also do not question the gross human rights violations. the eviction of citizens by force for their perceived differences not due to their historic origin elsewhere than in Arakan but because of Rohingya’s racial differences..arakanland. The spirit of Rohingya nation has to be kept alive not through the blame game and reiterating the hopelessness but through involving young leadership with the experienced ones and through initiating creative workshops. some of the works the author produced could be found in the following websites: Abid Bahar. which eventually led to the end of the Chandras. Being deprived of fundamental human rights and being victim of the systematic genocide. many Muslim people were killed.. Such absurd explanation doesn’t justify the aboriginal claim of the Rakhines. It seems that the epic was referring them as possessing all the uncivilized qualities including them being cannibals. and even engineers to help people in distress. 27).” and Ashin Nayaka as a Buddhist monk refused to accept the birth right of the Rohingyas calling the Rohingyas as simply the “Viruses. and recently in Rwanda and the literature written by intellectuals in those countries to incite the general public. From 2007 we are regrouping ourselves internationally. have filtered into the international media through international organizations.. U Nu was a man of good quality.” Pp.. Unlike Bengali women who wear sari. Ustad and Maung Moi from the Rohingya community BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 159 also came to see Mabud.123 The Story of Rohingyama .. it is not just the Rohingya issue that has been a subject of debate in Burma since 1948… There is no doubt that at the time.. Burmese Invasion of Arakan and the Rise of Non-Bengali Settlement in Chittagong Reporting about this horrifying event of Budapaya’s invasion of Arakan. .” Arakan Information Website CHAPTER 8 LIVING IN A GLASS HOUSE (This paper was written in response to Aye Kyaw’s article “The Rohingya and the Rakhaing” first published as Barbarity in the Bay and the Battered Beast in Kalandanpress) Arakan. and you left me so silently and so soon. “Burmese Invasion of Arakan and the Rise of Non Bengali Settlements in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts.tehelka.php?hidDate=20060215&hidType=FEA&hidRecord=0000000000000000089087 Francis Buchanan. “The Significance of the term “Kula” for the Rohingyas and the Burmese Muslims. good to see you.. The names used in the novel are imaginary and also the characters portrayed are different. He says “During the four decades of Burmese rule (1784-1824). It was sent across the mountains of Taungpass…. EPISODE #1: JOURNEY TO THE UNKNOWN: IN KANADA AND ELSEWHERE (Mother Amena and her son Siddiq arrived in Kanada yesterday and are now staying with Amena’s elder son Mabud. it would seem that the Chandras used Sanskrit language “Shoukeet Thakom” (in English meaning “We live in peace”) The latter expression in Chittagonian or in Chandra-Rohingya language seems historically more consistent. Michael Lipson and Jean F. Also see Khaing Aung Win’s “Arakanese Nationalism and the Struggle for National self determination(An overview of Arakanese political history up to 1988.. Arabic. A caravan of hundreds of men. genocide readers will find it bearing the warning signs of the Rohingya people’s on-going torment in Arakan.. he claims.. I feel very upset. This was also the beginning of the Burmese Mongoloid settlement in Arakan known now as the Moghs. social and cultural rights. Its policy plays directly into the divide-and-rule policy of the SPDC. Thus.. 22) He continues. His job was illegal because businesses are not allowed without citizenship.11.” who were the ancestors of the Rohingya were the aboriginals of Arakan and the Moghs (Rakhines) were only the late-comers. Regarding this. .” “Well.. She in her blaring voice but with a caring look at us said. Aye Chan. Pierre Bessaignet says “By the end of the eightieth century. Harvey says “The reasoning on which Bodawpaya acted was not peculiar to him. continues.. The democracy movement leaders should know how the trend of ultranationalist creates obstacles to reestablish the historical nature of multiculturalism in Arakan. we are losing our focus… it doesn’t cover close to a million Rohingya refugees scattered across the globe…” Helen Fein. 1981. During World War II.” What kind of norms and values had been created in Arakan that led Burma to create refugees for export? The present research shows… Hindus of Chittagong believe that Muslims have changed the original Sanskrit name of Chittagong from “Chatta gram” into “Chaitigaon. the famous author of the book. At Balukhali Crossing. but mother! This is the biggest lose.. 2007held in Tokyo. Abid Bahar. she seemed too weak to walk. 27) He cites the census by 74 Dr. the expulsion of the Chakmas from Arakan must be for no other reason then to their speaking of a non Burmese but an original Arakani language. Moghs and Rohingyas from Arakan towards the North. you wanted to say for one.D. (42) Due to the increase in the xenophobic writings and their mainstream appeal.. women and children have been subjected to massacres and eviction. U Maung Sein. Nayapyidaw (City of Kings). Under the circumstances.” said the young lamb.” 1992. p. (4) Rohingya population is mostly concentrated in five northern townships of Arakanstate: Maungdaw.Advocate Hafizullah. Subsequent to the death of Shah Suja. Burma. the army is no longer the servant of the country… making Aye Kyaw’s joke about the Rohingyas a joke.. But I searched them everywhere. Here. As foreigners. 19) What is surprising is that Aye Chan didn’t want to understand that there could be the displaced Muslim villagers who had returned back and obviously on their return they were not going to build pagodas in their villages. and on issues of Bangladesh-India. Jean Ziegler. No wonder why the military government has 184 Dr. Some leaders hope that when democracy comes in Arakan. discrimination and humanitarian challenges in Northern Arakan State” Forum Asia. it would be unnecessary to recount any of this.” (11) It is impossible that Chakmas came from Bihar. General Ne Win took over power and confiscated most Indian and Chinese owned busineses in Rangoon and began his “Burmanization 110 Dr. . We have to approach the Amnesty International. hello! Assalamu Alikum.. stop that hyperactive nonsense! Kirakini: What did the Dr. I can find her. I could hear someone’s grasping faint breath. We are presently preparing a list of who is who and their criminal activities in Arakan and in Burma and in abroad. did the party want to separate Arakan from Burma? The answer is a clearly no.. At present. It is true. I am having pain.”-FIDH International Federation of Human Rights. Ramayana “tells the story of Rāma. The book “Influx Viruses” identifies Rohingyas as the “foreigners. . M. “We could kill all of you. those soldiers formed part of the later Rohingya Muslim population. both Rohingya.. one of the defining characteristics of humanity. at night. and in particular it will locate the ideological roots of anti-Rohingya Burman-Rakhine chauvinism. it was done by their kings and the intellectuals in this corner of the world. The refugees are completely dependent on UN and aid agencies for food. He walked like a very proud man. Amir Hossain and many other man and women participated in the discussion and and also want to thank others who are present here at the meeting. Fatema was seeking word from newcomers every day about her missing relatives but had heard nothing.. 1208 A. As Sui Khar notes: “Each of the ethnic groups taken individually might seem small.” (p. social welfare agency might take the child from you. and he also does not cause others to do so” (//Samyutta// 55.. Kapilavastu. Aung San. We have to keep up our hope and keep moving. Majority of its followers populate in Asian countries.. . I promised. Madam Mira Malidzanovic who is very helpful as a coordinator came to give us the news that Rohingya children were fast adapting to learn Canadian communication skills in English and learning to say thank you to people who help them. This common trend of chauvinism on the part of the Rakhine xenophobes and the resultant suffering of Arakan’s Muslim people seem to have served for a people as a survival mechanism and the crystallization of their modern identity—the Rohingya… BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 179 Section 2: Who Is Who of the Anti-Rohingya in Arkan (Some of the information in this piece was collected from exiled Burmese refugees) Arakan was a medieval kingdom now a tiny and backward province of Burma.” (16) It is true the invasion created such a fear that a great number of people left Arakan. (7) One of the major Burmese Muslim groups called the “Rohingyas” lately was even declared by the military government as the noncitizens of Burma.. the latter a prisoners of conscience are not shy people. As soon as the news of my father’s leaving the country spread. they are not being seen by Bangladeshis as foreigners from Arakan.. DR 1016). This was not the end of her ordeal.. You see that? Yesterday.) “Francis Buchanon” in South East Bengal (1798). Food insecurity is used as a tool to target and compel the most vulnerable Muslim population into leaving the country and once they flee.. which some observers believe helps explain the particular importance of the religious issue in Arakan and the apparent chauvinism by some—though not.” Also in Michael Charney.. From Dhanyawadi to 1962. what is your Identity in Canada? Uone Kon? I would say you are both Rohingya and Canadian. the political Buddhist fundamentalists like Ashin Nayaka. . 1975. Arakan in the Pre-Mughal History of Bengal Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Letters 11). Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 251 (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. you must have one important thing in mind. and my teaching experience in Canada as an Early Childhood educator and also teaching communication courses at Dawson College. The Mujahid Party sent a letter written in Urdur (sic) and dated 9 June 1948 to the government of Union of Burma through the sub-divisional officer of Maungdaw Township. 19. began to return to their homeland immediately after the annexation. .” The military would come to our village take our men for forced labor.. but instead to the “primitive tribes” whom Mranma immigrants fought and displaced as they resettled in the littoral.” said local schoolteacher. p. During the time.. August 09. kind. Rohingya was an invention of the colonial period. I realized that we had no choice. throughout the work he uses unclear premises and discerning data and failed to make sustained arguments. and those who immigrated after the British occupation of Burma as non-indigenous . southern India.. 2007. the famous Buddhist statue. “I enjoy aiming for the stars. the xenophobic expressions against the Rohingyas have taken many forms—some works are treacherously rhetorical. help us and smile at us. but also the leadership of the democracy movement.. to free choice of employment. 1930 and 1938 anti Indian riots.. Abid Bahar group. Siddiq: Us who? Amena: You and me! It seemed so real! I even saw the two brother’s faces Siddiq: Who are those two brothers? Amena: They are the two Mogh (Rakhine) brothers named Aye and Maung from Buthdaung area of Arakan. we don’t have such enemies in Kanada! Amena: Yes. Laider calls a “frontier culture” with people from not one but two major racial groups. are shackled by their own practice prejudices and favoritism and by the fact BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 19 that they fail to expose collaborators in their midst. then… both Muslims and Buddhists are Burmese people and only dialogue can bring peaceful existence. their young people beaten up.” The sound even became louder. As a result. (Tears poured in her eyes. when he is questioning Rohingya’s origin. Than Tun.. No marks were evident.000 refugees. religion. in turn creating complex humanitarian situations in the region.. Most prominent of the authors is Aye Chan..rakhapura. The scenario doesn’t look good. This book began with the work on my thesis” Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society” done in 1982 at the University of Windsor. which is Rohingya. more importantly they lost their race that they love and respected for many many centuries. These were the original Rohingyas of Arakan. Vol A. in addition to sanction grants.During his twenty years of teaching at Rangoon University (Burma). Habibullah. Abid Bahar international support. SOAS Bulettin of Burma Research and Journal of Siam Society. Maa.” (General Aung San) CHAPTER 1 THE ENEMY #1 IN BURMA Burma is a land of bountiful resources and abundant natural beauty. they have changed their name from Tanchangya into Tanchanya. democracy movement leaders also reserve their exclusive “pure ethnic” club membership for themselves and maintain a distance from racially and religiously different Burmese ethnic minorities.}Original Message from AYE KYAW to kunyia@freerohingyacampaign.. ancient Rohingya) exodus to eastern India (Chittagong) Martin Smith says “ . His Holiness Dalai Lama opened the dialogue by explaining that if both Buddhists and Muslims remain flexible in their thinking.30 November 2007TEHELKA “Shan-EUgroup” Shan-EUgroup@yahoogroups. Aye Chan misuses the source to prove his point.. January 2006 APPENDIX 3 IMPORTANT ROHINGYA WEBSITES Kalandan Press Network RohingyaNet Burmese Rohingya Group (BRG) Arakan Today Rohingya Language Human Rights Peace & Justice for All (HRPJ) Rohingya Human Rights Review The Monthly Rohingya Review MERHROM National Democratic Party for Human Rights (exile) HQ Arakan Rohingya Organization-Japan (JARO) Rohingya Future Generation (RFG) Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO) Free Rohingya Campaign (FRC) Rohingya Organizations and News Groups: World Rohingya Congress (WRC). Abid Bahar To avoid the anti-foreigner movement that began in Rangoon by Ottama.. Some people worked for us. it is one of the best countries on this earth to live a good life. We are a nation without a leader or leaders. Calcutta: The Bengal Secretariate Book Depot. from this contact Arakan’s glorious kings had learnt to develop civilization not as a matter of creating terror through destroying human habitat. Aung San became Burma’s democracy leader. organized a group and attacked the kula villages and some inhabitants were killed (Rakhine State People’s Council 1986:36). anti-Indian.. Illegal drug trade. it was a moon lit night. but naturally out of nostalgia. My heart terribly shudders still to visualize those harrowing events. U Arif. Salimullah in Japan. the real story is Rohingyas as the Arakani Muslims are racially and religiously different from the racially Asian and religiously Buddhist Arakani and the Burmese majority population. our cattle—that we used to graze in our meadow “Diyakul”. (22) Historically. This book focuses on the Western frontier where human rights violations based on racial discrimination are rife. The cost of that freedom is the only question in Burma. I saw it.. Such a supremacy myth is similar to the “Aryan supremacy BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 25 or Sorbian “White supremacy myth. Although the headman was an Arakanese. The depopulation was such that there are valleys where even today the people have scarcely recovered their original numbers and men still speak with a shudder of Manar Upadrab “the oppression of the Burmese” Harvey says the above is a tragic story. the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of recism. Burmese Buddhists.org/v1/index. In Arakan and elsewhere. Other than that phenomenon of former refugees and their children returning home. “Burma gained independence from Great Britain in 1948 and this issue is a problem that Burma has had to grapple with since that time. some boats came to Maungdaw town and other areas from Sittwe (Akyab). But he characterizes the slight increase due to the higher birth rate in the Muslim population in Arakan after the British conquest as the result of settlement by “Chittagonian Bengali Muslims.” (7) While members of minority groups reported that monks helped them to save their property. for it defines Arakan’s ethnic boundary along racial lines. but my main concern here is Mabud and you should get married and raise lots of Rohingya Children. ..” Jove laughed at their croaking. they will enjoy more freedom and recognition in Arakan especially in abroad. the latter introduced the Theraveda Buddhism. When Kirakini starts a nasty fight everybody joins. My father also decided to leave the motherland for Bangladesh. 16. Particularly. They seem to steal Rohingya people’s positive energy.. They occupied the villages deserted by the Arakanese during the Burmese rule and established purely Muslim village communities. Such assertion about an ethnic group aimed at intentionally ignoring them because you dislike them is called xenophobia. used the given names to expand on his xenophobic claims. Some of these unfortunate Bengali souls cruelly captured were taken to Arakan as slaves (now Rohingyas) were employed in agricultural activities. Aye Chan advances the claims that after the British conquest of Arakan in 1826. “Assalamu Alikum!” Wassalam!”) Mabud: Come in L Win. the author of the 1982 constitutional Act. APPENDIX 6 ACCOUNT OF GENOCIDAL OPERATIONS AGAINST ROHINGYAS Source: Democracy in Burma As stated earlier. In 1990-92 again over 2. In this context Jacques Leider notes. Noromikla takes the name Sulauman Shah and becomes the king.. the government’s policy is one of integration and in Burma it follows the policy of extermination.. and is by far the most tense and explosive region of the country. those ethnic groups that lived within the Burmese territory before 1823 are the natives of Burma and are qualified to be the citizens of Burma.. Rohingya leaders claim that the NRCs were being confiscated before the eviction. 3.” (9) The book suggests different alternative ways to deal with this problem.” (21) In the name of religion. It uses the term “Raksha” (in Pali.A. the second Burmese invasion was led by the Burmese King Min Khaung Yaza. 177 178 Dr. in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.. “The Muslims from the other parts of Arakan kept themselves aloof from the Rohingya cause as well. A review of the work shows. the democracy movement.. the ANC which promotes racism. . to divert the public opinion by creating riots between Buddhist and Muslim community. I hope to provide the missing dots to the derisory understanding of Burma presented in the popular media. he was losing blood. One of them seems to be the dark-skinned aborigines of Arakan. important issues of education. but they had been released only on promise of never speaking of the incident and declined to discuss it further. He has attended several international conferences. On January 5 Mohammad Shah himself discovered his uncle’s body floating on the river near their village. This was the very same hatred that resulted in genocide and the forced extermination of people from their ancestral homes in countries across the globe. It seems that finding no other enemy in outside Arakan that they can now fight with. a serious student of history simply cannot afford such selective choice of data..” http://www. History of the Rohingyas. Chris Lewa.D. These 32 Dr… during the British period. websites. Abid Bahar places. Help children to develop the morality of autonomy which means to do things on their own using conscience. Forkan: But again think about it.(18) The Quran says: “And certainly We sent messengers (rasul) before you: there are some of them that We have mentioned to you and there are others whom We have not mentioned to you . Amena: In which direction am I going to pray? Mabud: This direction. (3) The Mujahid Party must be granted a legal status as a political organization. Ibid.” in SOAS Bullitin of Burma Research 1. in Rwanda—there was genocide.youtube. Siddiq: I think my mother would be happy to see from heaven that Mabud Bhai got married. during the 1960s the more active Rakhine extremists to get rid of Rohingya history destroyed the historic Sandikhan mosque of Arakan! Interestingly. They always find problems with others but not with themselves.” So Aye Chan’s “influx viruses” in the “Enclave” are simply a myth of a Rakhine survival strategy reinforced by the military government. (Shows a computer print out with name of people died in the camp in a single year. The main idea should be to learn about “the other’s beliefs and cultures. If these visitors remain unchecked. the country was a scarcely populated area.” Time Asia. Almost every resident of the camp I spoke to recount the horror stories of the army’s brutality and bestiality. Mother! I can’t find you now “Where are you?” Where can I find you?” When I cry and cry to find you. housing and medical care and necessary social services. I am ok.. p. .82. L Win: I was born in Bangladeshi refugee camp and I heard that Arakan is a beautiful place. we can now argue. These systematic policies have maintained underdevelopment and have been the driving force behind two mass refugee exoduses to Bangladesh. . sweeping all the 4 constituencies in the Muslim majority Mayu province by one of its parties (NDPHR). Zaid. instead of lecturing. . without distinction of any kind. kidnapped. This is unfortunate for the Rohingyas. Their plan was to connect Chittagong by railway with Buthidaung. they were all there settled in all over Arakan. (2) When did Muslims begin settling in Burma? How did Islam survive in Burma? What were the causes of its contemporary letdown? BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 187 It is estimated that Muslims began to arrive in Burma from the 8th century A. (the old Society and Culture of Chittagong).. the greater Jihad… the Chittagong Hill Tracts… There have even been records of Arab shipwrecks in Ramree islands of Arakan. the xenophobic Mogh elites felt the urgency of changing the Rohingya historic name into Rakhine state.H. (8) Arakan’s most contemporary xenophobic works reviewed in this research. particularly for the Arakan State and beyond.com/tourism/ spots/coxbazar. and said to him.. The process continues till today in a smaller scale. and deliberate omissions by chauvinist writers to avoid contradictions. part 2.” (p. but ask what you do for your family and your Rohingya community. Aye Chan relates. 1978… 2008 by Moin Ansari http://rupeenews. Moghs settles in Bandarbon..ca/WhatIsGenocide_en. The similarities between the Rohingyas of Arakan and the Rohingyas of southern Chittagong are strikingly closer and the these similarities in the common vocabulary and gramer demonstrate compelling evidences that the inhabitants of the ancient Mohayana Buddhist kingdom of Arakan spoke Sanskrit. Chakmas left southern Chittagong for Raojan in northern Chittagong and finally moves to the north East of Chittagong Hill Tracts where they live today. written in 2003. the northern region now called Chittagong became part of Bangladesh and the southern region. Having said the above. “ . our villages located near the ocean had gentle breeze from the river and in the village it becomes full of mist and after a little while sun 134 Dr. dated the 24th of April. Suddenly we saw close to 50 soldiers who surrounded most people. In addition to this work. 260 Dr. Muslims of Burma should know that their ability to adapt and survive in this Theravada Buddhist environment as the fittest will decide their fate either of survival or extinction. it was all over Arakan. Nurul Islam (ARNO) in UK and Mohiuddin (NDPHR) in New York. Rakhine intellectuals still have not yet learned the lesson that when one lives in a glass house it says “do not ever try to throw stone at others’ house. Burmese attempt to invade Chittagong was foiled by the British with enthusiastic support from the Bengali people of Chittagong. who also destroyed the Mon kingdom in the South.. This book covers the subject of Burmese invasion of Arakan and the rise of non-Bengali settlements in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts.. where they built the well-known Santikan mosque. (20) As mentioned earlier. and the Tanchaingyas of Chittagong Hill Tracts. But we found out that they hired a Rakine Buddhist. but subsequently. it explains the huge volume of the Rohingya population that left Arakan during the invasion and now as the returnees to Arakan had to go to court to reclaim their property that were already occupied by the Rakhines and other aliens from Burma. ethnical. 1945 British reoccupation of Burma and Japanese were driven out.. From this understanding one can surmise that despite the gradual taking over of Arakan by the Moghs. Finally. Shahid bhai: How are you feeling? Better. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence. (23) William James quoted in Lewis Vaughn and Chris MacDonald. As different 42 Dr.” The hoodlums began to attack the Muslim villages in souhern Arakan and the Rohingya Muslims fled to the North where they took vengeance on the Rakhines in Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships(13) Ashraf Alam provides a list of 294 villages destroyed in the pogroms of 1942: (a) Myebon in Kyaukpru District 30 villages. have been denied Myanmar citizenship. php?option=com_content&task=view&id=41&Itemid=65 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 255 UNITED NATIONS Press Release 3 April 2007 UN HUMAN RIGHTS EXPERTS CALL ON MYANMAR TO ADDRESS DISCRIMINATION AGAINST MEMBERS OF MUSLIM MINORITY IN NORTH RAKHINE STATE The following statement was issued today by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar.. so she is taking rest. The answer seems to lie in an unfamiliar territory. the latter Rohingyas arrived in Bangladesh without the NRC cards. The last moment of bidding farewell came. created for themselves an enclave within Burma. Alamgir Serajuddin. one of which was the Arakan Information Website. Aye Chan’s choice for identification of the Rohingyas as being “Chittagonians”—who are a racially different group from his own—clearly reflects his ultra-nationalist Rakhine prejudices. you can be what you want to be. women and children and sold them into slavery. Here he contradicts with the main theme of his work. When the British occupied Arakan. There are also several other related questions.. The book was published in the United States… part 11. Arakan was ruled by Chanda king Shoe Ratan.P.. Shahid bhai: (Mabud and Shahid bhai. With the military help from the central government. Abid Bahar. Four or five years ago. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)” in U Shw Zan and Aye Chan’s Influx Viruses.. why not the Rohingyas. my tears are not for fears. it was a threat only to the Rakhines. Page 315 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica http://encyclopedia. Burma Digest.. By 1935 Burma Act. Shwe Hintha Operation—August 1978-80 17. . Michael Charney says. we have no relative here.. Rohingya Refugees interviewed in Japan and in Bangladesh to find out information inside Arakan revealed this information. In the month of December. disability. The decendents of the 3. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought. The Rohingya ethnonym also shows that Rohingyas of Arakan originated from the aboriginal dark—skinned people.. Conclusion: Behind the Mask of the Devil As an educationist. (a Persian derived Rohingya word) was given the Rakhine Buddhist name “Sittwe. as a member of society.. 2006 The anti—Muslim riot from a rumor that some Muslim men raped a Burmese women supported by some Buddhist Monks and opposed by other peace-loving Burmese in Rangoon but spread to Arakan causing tension between the Muslims and the Buddhists. it is recommended that each chapter be read separately as a paper.. sustained trickle of low visibility.” The other author of the book is U Shw Zan..php?option=com_content&task=view&id=132&Itemid=2 CHAPTER 14 ISLAM IN BUDDHIST ENVIRONMENT: MUSLIM LEADERSHIP AND THE CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN BURMA The region of South East Asia is almost entirely Buddhist. It is as if saying “I have never met my brother. leading to BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 243 a number of evictions. I cried and keep crying as if that I lost my only possession. Rohingyas of Burma also speak a similar language. it was another excuse to attack the victim.(1) However.. while a smaller section of Arakani intelligentsia recognizes the importance of the diversity of Arakanese society and wish to develop Arakan as a multicultural society. to support the Burmese monks is not an alliance of political radicals. But no. however.. Moghs were the invaders of the Mahayana Chandra Arakan.1784. but are the Rohingyas of northern Arakan. It has inculcated a medieval tribal mentality. Scene1 is about the relatively peaceful Rohingya life in Arakan. The naming provided the military and the xenophobes the excuse that Burmese people have never heard of the name “Rohingya. help our Rohingy boat people in so much trouble in Thailand. the terrified Rakhine and Rohingyas simply crossed the river Naaf and settled in the Chittagong region depopulated due to the Mogh piracy. They are for negotiated settlement of their problems.net/view. (7) A general amnesty must be granted for the members of the Mujahid Party. the king of Arakan welcomed him but later in the same year the prince and his family were brutally murdered by the use of axe and their valuables were looted. She left Goalangi village. my father took up my hands and poured them into the hands of my aunt and tried to utter something. It is important to understand the issues raised by Aye Chan. 2. In detail.. (b). In 1979.. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 81 (22) Ashin Nayaka in U Shw Zan and Aye Chan’s Influx Viruses. Moors. 250 Dr. So.e. now you are Rohingya Canadian. the excuse that they were gossiping against the military government. Japanese Rule (1942-1945) The next large scale migration of Rohingyas to Chittagong took place during World War 11.) In the Abakan poll taken by these ultra-nationalists who are the serious Arakanese antagonist? http://www. Special thanks are due to all the Rohingya leaders for their inspiration to initiate and finish this work. Aye Kyaw and their organization. and the issue of stateless people from Arakan of Burma. Noakhali and Comilla. the Elections Commission abolished both the ALD and the NDPHR in 1991. The origin of the name “Rohingya” 06. Sein Win. . Aye Kyaw presenting himself as a historian says: “Rakhaing have been enjoying their life since the beginning of their history with King Marayu in B. Fatema could identify just about 100 from her original 232 Dr. Mohayana. He made Buddhism a political ideology. and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people. in his “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms. without Aung San. This book identifies those actors and events of genocide and the sources of medieval and modern refugee moments on one hand and on the other it documents grave human rights violations taking place in Burma. Aye Chan’s use of intellectual tools to understand Rohingya history as well doesn’t help in the construction of knowledge. we see when a Rohingya from Arakan crosses the Burmese border to Chittagong and becomes a refugee in southern Chittagong. and to somewhere else.. don’t make it too sad. We remind the Government of its obligation to protect all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction from any form of discrimination. There are some Bangladeshi scholars who take it seriously to support the cause because as an over populated country. near what is now Burma’s border with modern Bangladesh. the democracy movement as a whole should undergo dramatic internal changes in outlook. I will read it for you. Such fear could be real or perceived. the Rohingya people and their language are similar to those of the Chittagonian Bengalis.” (An unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan.. (Amena got up from bad and checks the weather by looking through the window. The refugees mention that even mentioning of their activities was considered as offense.time. It helps me keep moving. tattered cloths and a few cooking utensils. as she suffers from high blood pressure and her son had injured his left foot badly on the trail. (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. Harn Yawnghwe states.” As a result. Historical records also show that during Nasrat Shah’s(1518-32) rule he settled a colony in Chittagong with a Mosque and a tank at Fatabad. “THE BURMA WE LOVE” A Position Paper of the Arakanese Perspective Presented at the Oslo Burma Seminar on January15-17. . the overpowering stench of human excrement filled the air in the camp. 79 Harvey.. they ignore the fact that as the British rule brought peace. it became evident that a section of xenophobic Arakani leadership couldn’t rise above its medieval mob mentality of lawlessness. The flip side of Burma’s story is that it has also produced great leaders who have worked toward building the nation by creating alliances among groups. Dr.. 2007. (6) The Muslims under detention by the Emergency Security Act must be unconditionally released. and libraries including the Royal library. Burma has a sample of ethnic groups from each of its sister countries within its borders.” (Department of Defense Service Archives. began to call the subjugated people (comprised of Hindus and Muslims) as the “Kulas” meaning the Dravadian aboriginals. it is called longing to return home! It is nostalgia. making the Rohingya people stateless. Laughingly. Rohingyas also originated from Bengali people captured by the Mogh and Portuguese pirates of Arakan. copyright @ 2003. Kanada.000 Indians living in Burma attempted to walk over to India . DR 491 (56)). preventing them from ever returning home. In this chapter. Jacques Leider notes. “The Burmese military has clearly embarked on a policy of ridding the country of ethnic Rohingyas by any possible means. Arakan a kingdom based essentially on slave trade when it had strong leader was a constant threat to its neighbors from its pirates but taking advantage of the internal chaos. minorities. southern Iran. which dehumanizes Rohingyas as if viruses needing extermination from Burma. . who kindly travelled from Cox’s Bazar to meet me in Chittagong city.. It was in 1978 when I began my research on the Rohingya people and my work is still continuing. the Moghals led a campaign led by Shah Suja’s uncle Shaista Khan who reconquered Chittagong. Malaysia in the Middle East and the Rohingyas in Bangladesh refugee camps. Chandras were people of the Negroide variety. but could not. he was severely beaten up. More than a million Rohingyas now live as unwanted refugees in many parts of our world.org/InterreligiousDialogue/ islamic_buddhist_dialogue. Wali Khan and Sinidi Khan were the Bengal Generals who helped Arakan restore its independence.. Furthermore.ibiblio. the Shan against the Wa. what it is that turns “neighbors against neighbor?” It is an irony that Aye Chan was a native of the Mayu frontier. “Dear Omnipotent God! Protect them from all odds and obstacles and help them reach their destination safe and secure. “Xenophobic Burmese Literary Works—a Problem of Democratic Development in Burma. There were clashes between villagers and army and some of the villagers were wounded. Rakhines arrived late in Arakan with their Hinayana (Theraveda) Buddhist tradition and replaced the Chandras.40-57. Here in Arakan. Buddha never visited Burma.. Thomson-Nelson Publishers. The British withdrew from Arakan and the Japanese took it over. A Chronological account will show the trend that developed ever since. 2006. Toronto. 20. Rohingyas continue to be identified as “foreigners” and now suffer in the land they were born and brought up. p2. 17) Not surprisingly. and in other Burmese journals. The history of Rohingyas is the history of suffering. 1992.. Mohamuni statue is much older than that. When I think about them. Pyi Thaya Operation July 1991-92 (resulting in exodus of some 268. religious extremism etc.. Some of them were known to even become the Ministers to the Burmese king.. and in the Gulf states… lamb story of blaming the victim. In this the present Arakani xenophobes’ power base is the Burmese military. PhD Dissertation.. The group included Mohammad’s best friend..” The term Mogh.. and Muslims mosques in their localities. in the midst of the colonial rule and the subsequent rise of xenophobic writings. Aye Chan says. my father and mother and my sister Poori and Siddiq (was only 1 year old. This work is dedicated to Burma’s women and the rape victims. ml. I am also a Rohingya sympathizer.D.. Chakma would say “Yian ki?” in Rohingyalish.g. identifying Rohingyas as the Bengali Muslim Immigrants” from Bangladesh.19 M…” Rohingyas are the illegal Bengali Muslims entered Burma during the British period and formed an “enclave” in Burma’s northern Arakan near the Bangladesh border. The irony is. Sociology. says there is an enclave in Arakan.. Just before the bird could fly…000 by Wali Khan and 40. (6) For their intolerant behavior.. From the time of Noromikhla (from 1430 when the latter was helped to regain his kingdom from the Burmese) there had been a great degree of contact between Arakan’s Mrohaung city and Bengal. Historically speaking. “In education. one of them drove bayonet through his chest. Iman: Where did you find them? Mabud: Then after a week I was exhausted.” p. .” SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 22 (autumn. I am sure Rohingya mothers from their suffering in refugee camps found out to give more importance to how to raise their children than other less important issues.rldb.. under the British rule. “Arakan bottled up in Pride and Prejudices. refers to BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 191 the Buddha. U Shah Newaz. Again.. 2009 Rohingya people in panic in northern Arakan Maungdaw. catapults. an Arakani king erected a pillar at Chittagong in the ninth century A. we see Aye Chan’s double standard. I have noticed the presence of a few Kirakinis (Rohingya protagonists). Even in the face of such outrage. While these excuses are easily understandable to the educated Burmese. National United Party of Arakan (NUPA). this time four females. Abid Bahar denied Myanmar citizenship. You were very young when we left Arakan and. why should such people object at Rohingya’s Burmese citizenship in their ancestral land? When the democratic government of U Nu issued the National Registration Cards to the Rohingyas. 1942 The ultranationalist Arakani group taking a leaf from the Burmese anti—Indian slogan branded the Rohingyas as the Chittagonians. Major Aung Than Operation—1973 14. the Rohingya people have been taken preparation to cross Burma-Bangladesh border. “Burmese Invasion of Arakan and the Rise of Non Bengali Settlements in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts.” . One is to adapt with this society. we should not only recall a few poets and ministers at the court of Rakhine. 14-33… A Superndent. Wali Khan was killed in the battle and his followers were allowed to settle near Kalander River.pdf. a charlatan Mabud: Through cyber bullying he is making a bad name for our people on the net. In the above. 1981). Then the situation was made more complicated when the British identified all the Arakani Muslims as being the Indian Muslims this was because India and Burma were under the one British Empire…. episode 3 is about the antagonist. In the novel. U Zaw. ‘Democracy can only be a transition in Myanmar. Their status was even recognized by Burma’s democratically elected U Nu government in 1954. London.” I love you too!” in return! I know it is the time of life to lose not the pearls and the gems we possess but the dear ones.3 percent and they all were categorized as Bangladeshi. photographs. when was reminded his position in the upstream. Also see Abid Bahar. L.. Show them that negotiation can bring better results than trying to solve problems through conspiracy and violence.. contact: Xlibris Corporation 1-888-795-4274 www. The soldiers spotted us and began firing at us. Forkan: We have to have clear thinking. both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. the destruction of some Rohingya places in Arakan were also done. Wrapped in a dirty Tami. I also interviewed some other Rohingya refugees. the son of the Moghul emperor Shah Jahan was given the promise of shelter but was later robbed.com/2008/02/03/why-did-buddhismdisappear-from-the-south-asian-subcontinent-summary-of-brahmin-atrocitiesthat-destroyed-buddhism-in-the-subcontinent/. (12) Chan continues.. . They didn’t even mention the recent wave of refugee movements dating back to 1991-92.. Bard College (NY.. . many food Go-downs of the refugees were burnt down by the army. However. Also in Michael Charney. For a long time this has also been a tradition in Arakan to celebrate lawlessness against ethnic and racial minorities. the colonial given name Mugh was officially changed into the present name “Rakines”.. Asiatic Society Bangladesh. Dhaka: Dhaka University Press. (6) 202 Dr. but as well the massive deportations and settlements of Bengalis in Arakan before 1785. I could follow her valued signs. who recorded the word Rohingya in Burma in 1799. tell us. spread xenophobia at home in Arakan but preach democracy abroad. Rohingya and Rakhines are like two sides of the same coin Arakan. “The Japanese air force attacked Akyab on 23 March 1942 and the British moved their administrative headquarter to India on March 30. It was the military shooting in every direction. without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories. when faced with a deadly snake and an ethnic at the same time. . and you have to defense it from outsider. even at the present time. Faroque: That is ok. in spite the fact that. Canada. (13) Following his logic.. “But the news of killing. soon after his arrival in Arakan. help the Rohingya children in refugee camps so that they could be brought to foreign countries! They are suffering so much. Hasan.) a racial and political dimention in Burmese politics. and not surprisingly. Rohingya people have their origins in different sources. Young Rohingyas already gathered there. L Win: Give me some plates (borton). Also see M. I could have given her sapphires in return. 1992. who in spite of being elected in 1988. (3) Model behavior: If you want them not to lie.. whether born in or out of wedlock. In the wake of independence most of the educated Muslims felt an overwhelming sense of collective identity based on Islam as their religion and the cultural and ethnic difference of their community from the Burmese and Arakanese Buddhists. he published articles in Southeast Asian Studies (Tonan-Ajia Kenkyu).htm Also see Anti-Muslim picture of Monks destroying Mosques in Bago/Pegu in 1997 «http://sanooaung.amnesty. We are working as lobbying groups. “Arakan Studies: Challenges and Contested Issues.”(11) Aye Chan’s claim of these people as being Chittagonians is due to the fact that he didn’t take into account the fact that many of the original uprooted people of Arakan returned to Arakan to claim their possessions. It is their joint struggle for a democratic Burma that makes the Rakhine ultranationalists fear that in recognizing the Rohingyas. It is clear that kulas’ common suffering as mentioned above and the Rakhine stigmatization of them as being people from an inferior race led them to the conceptualization “Rohingya” as an ethnic group. Bangladeshi Rakhines and Chakma tribes also took shelter in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts.. and development of the community and use strict censors. It is a very good poem. violent videos. The leaders of Burma’s never-ending quest for democracy.. one would find that after Asoka. Thus the cause of Rohingyas finds a little support outside their own community. If she wants to say things about Arakan. As if the 1942 event was not enough. “Ghorae Thaiekle Moghe pai. 158 Dr. Rohingyas are not Burmese citizens because they are not considered indigenous people of modern Burma.1 (June 1986). the National Democratic Party for Human rights (NDPHR) that won in four constituencies in 1990 elections as eleven candidates of the Arakan League for Democracy (ALD) were elected to the legislature. do they allow deviation. Both of them sit near her on the bed) Mabud: Let me call my friends for advice. they fail to respect the human rights of other-the Rohingya. Sultan Mahmud. hmya sue (Chin kali) and even guns—to the Natala (model) villagers and Rakhines… tell me. N. meaning “dark skinned inferior people” Say in America.” (p. Jacques P. which advocated settling ikhwan or brethren in agricultural communities near to the places of water resources. 2006. most of us had traumatic experience but Kirakini probably had a traumatic early life also and seems he is from a very bad upbringing. 2) There have been many complaints of a significant increase in illegal taxation and extortion. According to a record of British East India Company. where popular protest led to profound changes in the way the countries are governed..M. Collis. This is because Rakhasa (demon) idea is very predominant in the Southern states of India and very dominant in Sri Lankan Buddhist tradition. you should model yourself as an honest person. You killed my husband. It is indeed. Considering the state of unrest in Arakan (which continues till today).. the authorities have equipped—swords.” (Buddha) CHAPTER 9 A SHORT REVIEW OF AYE KYAW’S “THE BURMA WE LOVE” AND “THE ROHINGYA AND THE RAKHAING Aye Kyaw’s “The Burma we love” and The Rohginya and the Rakhaing are two maliciously written papers with a chauvinistic tenor. This confusion was further complicated by the fact that after the Burmese occupation of Arakan in 1784. (9) S. the first British administrator. the Paletwa Township was given to the Chin Division. U Jilani. who is now a leading democracy movement leader in New York. 2005. I lost my mother. It appears that his personal opinion is being passed on as simply an expert opinion. the Wa against the Shan. 1986. Dynamics of Ethnic Relations: Problem of Sharing the Scarce Resources What has come to light from our research on the dynamics of interethnic relations between the Rohingyas and the Rakhines is that Rohingyas are not the “aliens” in Burma. Rohingyas were from Arakan of Burma and should be given the status of Burmese citizenship. Interestingly. wao-global@yahoogroups. 28) It is known that when the legitimate demand for the recognition of the minority rights is seen as “a direct challenge. Shokepro. In the story the wolf says. Aye Chan relates the Muslim community of Arakan. Ne Win began his Rohingya extermination program. I checked around and said. Rohingya Jatir Etihas. Burmese king even took away Arakan’s precious symbol. Rohingya referred to the Hindus and Muslims. Rape of women after their husbands of fathers had been taken for forced labor was common.. should Muslims keep low profile? Historically speaking. Again. All Arakan League was established in 1930 to 34 Dr. since 1937. We are a stateless people. Abid Bahar About the ethnic origins of Chakmas..000 Rohingyas were sent back to Bangladesh.. If it is true and Rohingyas continue to lose this due to the weakness in their leadership. Rohingyas are as if the Shans of Burma who have their Thai cousins across the border. June 30.” (p. It is important that human rights groups collect the collaborators activities. such as race.” “seek knowledge. still prefers their identity as Bengali Muslims. Abid Bahar hearing it anymore. and meet with Muslim Religious teachers and said that” Buddhists & Muslims have to work hand in hand for PEACE in the world. as if all those atrocities and continued human sufferings through the military operations in Arakan meant nothing. Well.” (12) Conclusion In contemporary Burma. Ironically he also introduced Buddhism in Burma. In the book. Rohingya leaders (a total of 5000) still remained in Bangladesh. (12) BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 91 As for Arakan. It is a good cause for genuine Burmese democracy movement leaders. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. Item 18: Effective functioning of human rights mechanisms.. . Unable to endure anymore.. (Delivered by Deborah Stothard. We were talking about Kanada. it is largely to watchfully understand the roots of racism in Arakan and to recognize the refugee production trends in the region. Section 2: Rohingya Nation: Contemporary Problems and Making Certain of the Uncertain Future Rohingya people comprise the biggest block of Burmese Muslims. “In the abortive 1988 Democracy Uprising. He had warned “one ought not talk or act as if he was asleep. However..” [Qur’an 40:78] “For We assuredly sent amongst every People a messenger . to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. basically that. this depopulation in Chittagong was caused by the “Mogh-Portuguese piracy” and Bengali slave trade making Chittagong a wasteland… “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan: From Dhanyawadi to 1962. 1997.. Here we are left with Aye Chan as a feisty boxer without the details of the match! Disparaging Rohingya history The author says. The original statement “to make war is improper” seems more like the declaration of a peace treaty between two parties than as it is presented as the declaration of a victory by an Arakani king. Arabs monopolized trade between the East and the West. Aye Chan didn’t clarify how making mosques can make the Muslims “purely Muslim communities.. U Nurul.. During the seminar. you are intentionally keeping yourself ignorant.. My research on Western Burma began in 1978 when refugees first poured into Bangladesh’s Southern region. many people have helped me in this endeavor: Dr. It is total ethnic cleansing. Burmese invasion of Arakan on the Rohingya people continues and they escape persecution by land and by sea by boat risking their lives.. (11) Joshua Eliot and Jane Bickersteth. in not knowing well of the Canadian ways of communication one might be behind in becoming successful in life. The above elected MP from National Democratic Party for Human Rights (NDPHR) and a member of the Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) was detained on 17 March 2005. Shans. I see they “lose the substance by only grasping at the shadow. Under the circumstances. (7) In opposition to such writings. Robert Horn.” (p. language. non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Aye Chan denies the birth right of the Rohingyas by concluding. Kachins have similarities with the Chinese in China.” in the “exchange of commercial goods” in helping develop friendship between nations and could be mutually beneficial to the neighboring countries. some finished food. Director of Nasaka. Jean Ziegler.org . To me.” SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 1. Narinjara News (NN) which says about themselves “founded by a group of Arakanese in exile in Bangladesh” is astounding. Children watching video games. (g) Rathedaung in Akyab District 16 villages.” May 2000.. that you may know each other (not that you may despise (each other). http://en.rakhapura. the national united front of Burma that was under the leadership of the charismatic leader U Aung San. I was fortunate to meet some sophisticated Rohingya minds who are tolerant.com/videoplay?docid=85892798345915330&hl=en-CA Aye Kyaw. Mabud: Kirakini ridicules’ his opponents a lot. Abid Bahar As a researcher on the Rohingya people. Francis Buchanan noted in 1799. forced labor… History of the Chittagonian Chakma shows that they originally arrived from Arakan to Chittagong in the 14th century during the Sultani period. It was also published in several other Burmese journals and is popular among anti-Rohingya ultra-nationalists. women and children streamed into neighboring Bangladesh with stories of rapes… Rohingyas also preferred to officially call themselves with this new name. ## APPENDIX 12 A POEM Tears are not for Fears (A Poem Dedicated to Aung San Suu Kyi by the author) Suu Kyi the cloud carries water and showers the garden It breeds forces in hundreds of men and women not a burden To feed her starving children. beyond expressing muted formal disapproval and implementing ineffective sanctions. I met and had contact with Advocate Kalam. Abid Bahar Immediately. Altaf: Ok. The cleverly constructed work “Influx Viruses” clearly supports the military tradition of Ne Win. The crowd who came to see us BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 235 off was still standing still on the bank and when our boats departed from the bank we raised our hands to the Almighty saying. 15) It is true that Rohingyas are concentrated in the Mayu Frontier. they in common. by following the rule of law. I was given the good news by Chris Lewa of Forum Asia and Francis of UNHCR that Rohingya people were coming to Canada and ever since I wanted to come to see you and help you to give some orientation about Canada. southern Burma. History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824 The Beginning of the English Conquest. “Regarding the beginning of the ethnic violence in Arakan.. My mother padded me to comfort when I was too afraid and not sure because I was young.Aye Chan. and posting false statements to humiliate them. 1957.” It says: 223 224 Dr. and uncultured. if he already knows anybody? Siddiq: Ask Mabud Bhai! Somebody in his life! Ustad: who is that girl? What is her father’s name? BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 163 Mabud: Not so fast.” (12) Francis Buchanan. most of the ethnic/ racial troubles originate from an unwillingness to share resources and the myths of a glorious past allow them to demonize the minorities with the myth of being “foreigners. Abid Bahar Aye Chan. to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. This is also true because unlike classical Tibetan Buddhism.” Habibullah says. and then had no choice but continue their escape on foot. who migrated before 1971 are also being considered as Bangladeshis. ethnical. the abstract of the paper presented at the First International Conference on the “Problems of Democratic Development in Burma and the Rohingya People. the teacher more said. The defining characteristic which separates the crime of genocide from other ordinary crimes is the special intent. However. long time ago. For now we have to watch double agents among us and talk less. php?option=com_content&task=view&id=20&Itemid=3. Concepts.. Francis Buchanan. “A comparative Vocabular of Some of the languages Spoken in the Burma Empire. the term Rohingya seems to be a derivation of the Bilu. It seems the beasts of today’s Arakan are no more some of the oppressive kings of Arakan but the notorious Aye Kyaw. We call on the Government of Myanmar to take urgent measures to eliminate discriminatory practices against the Muslim minority in North Rakhine State. . This is a work in tragedy and the four episodes in the drama with minor changes could be staged separately.. Here a good reading of the materials show a dangerous game they play.” There are two large Barua settlements in Satbaria and another one in Chokroshala of southern Chittagong. After all. “Burmese Invasion of Arakan and the Rise of Non Bengali Settlements in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts. under the command of Kadal Khan Gazi and with help from Pir Badar Alam. seems to have unwittingly begun the confusion. Buddha visited Burma Burmese people are as devoted to Buddhism as a national identity that most people believe that Buddha actually visited Burma. It is not hard to understand what Aye Chan has been trying to advocate to his Arakanese and the Burmese audience. 113-114.” or even outright “foreigners. We are Rohingyas from Arakan…” PREAMBLE Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom. in the snow. see Abdul Haque Chawdhury. Noakhali and Comilla… His government identified the Rohingyas as “Indian Bengalis” from Chittagong migrated to Burma during the British period beginning from 1826. U Aung San was openly assailed to his face as an opportunist by some people attending the conference. Chakmas and the Chandra Rohingyas continued to speak Chittagonian. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 43 it will be of interest to know how did they respond to the challenges Arakan society faced. impose extreme surveillance and enforce Rohingya’s suffering through starvation in villages which are more like the concentration camps as if they are dealing with “aliens. Meanwhile. The inevitable difficulties from this lack of awareness have been aggravated by the uneven impact of the West . 2005. the commander of MOC-15 of Buthidaung Township. We felt relatively secured. In the north.The result of this war was roughly that the Maugh took over the southern half of the country and the Mussulman the North. The phrase “in whole or in part” has been the subject of much discussion. Rohingyas settled in southern Chittagong. Research shows that this is a typical slippery slope that a great number of Burmese leaders follow. It is no wonder that these were the times of Alaol and the other Rohingya poets. it is ANC’s ultra-nationalism. Families who had built their houses on land registered as paddy fields decades ago were suddenly issued with expulsion orders and forced to dismantle their homes.. p. Chattagramer Ittihas Prosongo.. Na-Sa-Ka Operation since 1992. lobbying groups. this group as exiles in Bangladesh propagates for democracy and human rights for the Rakhines in their website. I don’t know why! He thinks if you are not with his gang you are with his enemy’s gang.. you should all be supporting the Rakhines to help separate Arakan. Workshop: From Dhanyawadi to 1962. after twenty-four years of exile in Bengal.. I am a researcher on the Rohingy people and a Human Rights activist. Burmese troops had captured more than 300 Rohingyas trying to flee across the Naaf River.. when we were crossing the Apawa mountain pass.. Charney. “The ethnic conflict in the rural areas of the Mayu frontier revived soon after Burma celebrated independence on 4 January 1948. the Arakani historians claim that the name Chittagong was originally given by an Arakanese king. but simply harmless people fleeing from death. only to push them out again in 1991-92. these half-baked and prejudiced papers by Aye Kyaw are now put on the net for distribution. wao-global-team@yahoogroups. D.. One officer said. or stranger Yakin” prove the existence of the ethnonym predating British occupation of Arakan. What is needed by the democracy movement leaders is to be open to sincere debate. the Burmans against the Chinese…. little children ran to their parents to fatch the documents. including forced volunteering for the slave labor—the “kooli”—the forces indiscriminately assault and dishonor the Rohingya women. It was during this time that Arab sailors came in contact with the local BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 55 Dravadian dark skinned people forming the first nucleus of the Rohingya people. Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society: A case Study of Inter Ethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas. it is now easy to draw some intriguing conclusions that if the Rohingyas who are not yellowish but dark skinned inhabitants of Arakan are still called by the Moghs as the “Kulas. Through us they are also the victims.php?hidDate=20060215&hidType=FEA&hidRecord=0000000000000000089087 R. as he claims. the Rohingyas have been leading a gypsy life at home and abroad decades after decades. these Chakma and other Mongoloid population along with some of the ancient Dravadian Chandra Hindu and Muslim population (the Rohingyas) of Arakan were pushed back to Chittagong. Chittagong Hill Tract Thinga Council (North). (Kaungsin) (5) As a result of the various historical forces present in Burma.. Kyi Gan Operation—October-December 1966 11. Abid Bahar. (an unpublished paper) “in Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan From Dhanyawadi to 1962. It 142 Dr. I remember my childhood in Arakan.. prevents villagers from gaining a fair income for their produce. dissolved federal seminar. the court of Bengal sultan Gaisuddin Azam Shah.. Rohingya cause is a human cause so we should get 140 Dr. In ancient time Rakhaingland comprised the area of present Bangladesh and the area west of the Rkhaing Roma (Arakan Mountain Range). he first makes the Rakines victims in the hand of Muslim Zamindars.” 2005. I have compiled some works to document what was happening in Arakan. his goal here seems less erudite and more to demonize the Rohingyas to create fear among the Burmese people. she was very beautiful. Listen! The Harrowing Tales of Rohingya refugees Cox’s Bazar.” (Qur’an. Colombia: DewDropArts and Tecnology. Habib Siddiqui. Arakan was a Mahayana Buddhist place with an Indian population.. 241 242 Dr. who now are Bangladeshi citizens.Khin Maung(Bangladesh-Burma border) (7) Abid Bahar. and Persia sailing from Bombay or from Sri Lanka area to the East would invariably be taken to the shores of Arakan. I also would like to thank all the people. than believe it. The xenophobes see us as Muslims but not human. On the contrary. The international community is deluded about Burma’s progress toward democracy. Mogh-Muslim discontent in Arakan and the Rohingya refugees in Chittagong…. and catch them. “Maa!” She now replied “Maa! This time the sound was not from Arakan’s walling mountains. this operation was led against the Rohingyas in 1978. recording. In Aye Chan’s opinionated understanding he even neglected the Rohingya origin in the ancient Chandra rule of the “Indian Kulas. and restrictions on marriages. fear of the stranger.” “ . I approached her faster to save the distance between her and me and at first she kissed me on the forehead.. she is a tough lady. But if you are promoting this pretension saying “I have never heard the name Rohingya. there had been three major recorded attacks on Arakan.. To counter this oppressive trend. such as in Thailand. Also Francis Buchanon in South East Bengal (1798) His 48 Dr. Chakma Royal history says that in this war against the Burmese.rohingya……nsf/view01/ F0ED9448671A73E6C12572B100553470?opendocument Source: Rohingya League for democracy (Burma) http://www. Killing members of the group. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 169 (3) Like the Japanese mothers.. Abid Bahar 9th Century Chandra invasion of Chittagong. see in the research work of Martin Smith “Muslim Rohingya of Burma. She settled in the new place with her life’s grief from turmoil and tragedies.. Arakan Research Society.. p.: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms. I felt humiliated that we were forcefully exterminated from our birth place.. It was not unlike the policy of European countries in former times. a Rakhine professor who teaches in Japan. . (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association. 2005. They set fire in the village homes. even “influx Viruses” according to a phrase coined by Rakhine intellectuals. (29) Francis Buchanan. from coast to coast which is called Canada. I sometimes used the name Muslim of Arakan in a broader sense.. in fact. what are the conditions that keep the military in power in Burma? This study shows that on one hand. (Dhaka: Dhaka University Press. (1) Everyone has the right to education. women and children gathered around. But it is possible that you are with neither party. Micheal Charney records. You have been a menace to our community. were not concerned with the event and remained in the frontier areas till the Citizenship Law of 1982 was enforced in 1987. 2007 August—Wave of public dissent sparked by fuel price hikes. It is good to be not anti-Rakine. in 1982 they were being declared as the stateless people of Burma.000 Rohingyas with the excuse of Rohingyas being “foreigners. The Rakhine explanation to the above question seems more simplistic because the pieces of the puzzle to the answer are scattered all over this region.” Are they presently losing it? Yes.” “fictitious books” without detailing the content of the sources either in this article or elsewhere.com. We are starting our work in Arakan and hope to include whole Burma. out of a fear that if they identify themselves as the Rohingyas.. especially in 1942 resulting in population displacement of Rohingyas from the south lived mostly by Rakhines to the northern part of Arakan lived by the Rohingyas. From this perspective. Noakhali and Comilla. It is evident in the Rohingyas in outside Arakan that those who identify BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 195 themselves as Rohingyas get more privileges. but I hate people calling us refugees.” “non natives. Low-breeds overseas.. It is important to note that historically from the beginning of 7th century Arabs were doing trade in the Indian Ocean.. at the invitation of Mira Malidzanovic. Burmese or Muslims? Burmese Military Junta or Muslims (so-called Rohingya)?” The intent of the poll as shown was to find the “real enemy” among its citizens (but not the friend). now everybody blames you. Yager as a historian records Arakan as a source of one of the refugee producing areas in South-East Asia.. During this traumatic time Mabud was born. the Christians against the Buddhists.asp “Never by hatred is hatred appeased. (Mogh) a cousin tribe of the Burmans attacked Arakan and conquered the existing Chandra dynasty. I felt the necessity of writing this book. with the Burmese military help. Chittagong and the residents of lower Bengal lost their peace for the next two hundred years. mapping a field of historical and Cultural research. Momentarily. Chicago for providing us digital satellite image of Mouths of the Irrawaddy used as the cover page of the book and Josh Schwartz for facilitating the whole process of transaction. the Rohingya people of northern Arakan State have been passing their days and nights in panic.. The Arakan National Council (ANC) in the conference March 1-6. Dragon King Operation of 1978 and the Operation of 1991/92 are the most horrific genocidal operations of the world.. with an assistant commissioner in each district. their numerous collaborators are equally answerable for their crimes. 1960 Representation to Prime Minister U Nu by Mr. The term Mogh seems to have originally developed from Rakhine claim of them as being one of the original Buddhist tribe from India. Chattagramer Ittihas Prosongo (the old Society and Culture of Chittagong). (Translated into English by Edouard Vo-Quang..New York (This paper was written in response to a conference on the Rohigya and the democratic movement of Myanmar..000 live in Bangladesh. It appears that in the beginning. collecting important prizes on behalf of the Monks of Burma. University of Windsor. Influx Viruses. food and adequate housing. Scene 5. Mabud: We have to involve young people who will come up with new ideas and get to action. Then in 1941 the two sects set to and fought. Khaing Aung Win’s “Arakanese Nationalism and the Struggle for National self—determination (An overview of Arakanese political history up to 1988). by which in Eastern India the aged most commonly support their infirmities. As a result. I have suggested him to stay away from Kirkini and his notorious activities.. p. The History and Sociology of Genocide. this book also covers groups in Western Burma that became historic victims of the Burmese invasion of Arakan.” I screamed.(24) Despite a clear evidence of Burmese invasion and atrocities on the Rohingyas.. but the country’s real beauty resides in its multiethnic composition.000 Rohingyas in the Middle East..000 of them crossed the border. The Karen Christians also have similar problems in Burma because of their religious differences. I was running and running and there was a shot and I fall on the ground.. But due to the lack of an all-out guarantee of their security in Arakan. To avoid trouble. and India’s dam-building and water aggression problems from the beginning of its independence. Article 26. At that time. 1787 in which he mentioned that the Chakmas fled to the jungles. On March 3. the soil of Arakan has been frequently drenched with the blood of the Rohingyas which caused innumerable exodus of Rohingyas in the wake of innumerable operations led against the Rohingyas out of which the Pogrom of 1942. The fact is Arakan had an Indian kingdom first Hindu. Under the circumstances. . it is in you. Similar manifestations of xenophobia aimed at exterminating the Christian minorities persist in 206 Dr. Aye Chan’s. (6) But this research shows that in recent years. Doudou Diène. history tells us that the term Rohingya was there before 1950. I came here voluntarily to give you orientation as to how to be a good and effective Rohingya Canadian. They say killing is not permitted in their religion.. Moghul governor Shaista Khan by defeating the Moghs and the Portuguage. Did you hear one Palit. and we would therefore urge the Commission to pursue all possible measures to guarantee this right to the Rohingya Muslims of Arakan State as well as to all people in Myanmar. On top of that the weather is changing pretty fast… the democracy movement leadership.html. Nurul: It is true. military-led middle class with a corrupt. is now lived racially both by Indo-Semitic and Mongoloid population.. the Arakani king 212 Dr. I don’t see you have a knife.. (39) They are a predominantly Muslim community that took roots in a predominantly Buddhist environment.. the communal disturbance during WW 11. because he is fighting for human beings but against “viruses. Buchanan found Moghs. http://www. cranes and the sunset in the horizon… (9) Section 3: Arakanese Monk’s Burmese Way to Democracy Ashin Nayaka a native of Arakan is a leading member of the International Burmese Monks Organization in USA and a visiting professor. Mohammad Ashraf Alam. Michael W. Rohingyas became detached from people in India with whom they had more cultural affinity. When the firing started. to the word Rakkhanpura and to the name Rakkine people. the “unfolding of reason in history.. He says. whether there was an actual plan. 3. (45) The Arakan has been under the grip of the military-backed ultranationalist from the 1960’s. Hundreds of men. and here of course. “In light of this. However. Aye Chan relates. when over 250.000 in different Arab countries and smaller numbers in Western countries and in Japan.” question #1 Did you hear the news of Rohingya exodus of 1978 when 200. While the ANC was established in New Delhi. “Burmese Invasion of Arakan and the Rise of Non Bengali Settlements in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts”. Kalam: (Kalam and Nurul were friends of Amena’s deceased husband go to see Amina who is lying on bed. As a matter of duty to Burma’s democracy movement and particularly to discourage the growth of xenophobia. Mabud says Assalamu Alikum to everybody.org/InterreligiousDialogue/islamic_buddhist_dialogue.1 (Spring 2003). weeping . The below statistical figures are from Shah Mohammed Saifuddin BANGLA-MYANMAR RELATIONS: Strategic partnership through co-op and conflict resolution. it appears that neither the Chakmas. on the radio the army said “Rohingyas couldn’t be Burmese people.” So. he uses the key term “frontier culture” for understanding Arakan. You please save them from the military tyrants with Your heavenly protection.” “intruder” or a “Chittagonian in Arakan” For Aye Chan. lawless people.. Lewa works closely with the Rohingyas in Chittagong and in the Arakan province. This shows his agenda against the Rohingyas. We also see big geopolitical changes when Nasarat Shah was expelled from Gaur by Sher Shah. activists and ordinary people in general to identify. Surely.. Considering the radical Chakma armed movement and initiatives and the initiatives of name changes of the tribal areas by the tribals. instead of the sincere help provided by the organizations.. Kyaukpyu and Thandwe and some people managed to settle in their original native 60 Dr.177 Section 1: Varieties of Burmese Military’s Civilian Collaborators and the Genocide in Burma . [they] constitute 40 percent of the population and occupy 60 percent of the land. Abid Bahar been successful in ruling Burma for such a long time! Rohingyas have been suffering genocidal repression inside Arakan state and outside the country suffers as stateless people. or have been. New York. Chittagong. while Rohingyas lived in Arakan for centuries. they are denying the fact that Chandra-Muslim population.. “The Mujahid uprising began two years before the independence was declared. “You can catch more flies with sweet than vinegar. Collins also cited in the book. Enayet. In this chapter. This is evident from what U Khin Maung Saw. Habib Siddiqui Tuesday October 09 2007 19:51:23 PM BDT.. International agencies avoid us to rehabilitate in third countries. Abid Bahar 1784-85 Burmese king Bodapawpaya’s conquest of Arakan led to the mass migration of Mogh and the Rohingya to Chittagong. It seemed like after years of my association with the Rohingya people. the Arab settlers from the 8th century. “to make war is improper” as was made up later on. January 20 Her gaunt and swollen red eyes speak of the terrible sufferings she has endured. ex-M. This is a fascinating book replete with both sociological and historical insights. “If it was not you it was your father. the number of victims was large and their significance was such that. their show of love and appreciation put me back to complete this work. Japan. She seemed always in grief. and yearly conferences. Who am I going to serve? Kalam: (Hugging Mabud says) don’t cry.. Besides. 229 230 Dr. Rohingyas continues to migrate to Chittagong. Tactical Operation Commander of (TOC) of Buthidaung Township. 40-57. accompanied by Western Command Commander. Our people are suffering.000 Mogh and 30. For the Kirakini type of Rohingyas…. Little by little… In outside Quebec. “Rakhaing could more clearly be seen as being derivative of Sanskrit and Pali words. I was sitting alone on a riverside beach watching the birds.. which most likely be the the whole of southern Chittagong that was then under Arakanese rule.. India. it will also deal with classical Buddhism which is opposed to the contemporary malevolence in Burma. of Rohingya genocide are Dr. the Chakmas of Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Rohingyas of Southern Chittagong were originally from Arakan took shelter in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts throughout this period.229 Farewell . Abid Bahar Article 22. 30. the country was a sparsely populated area.rohingya. the people of Indo-Semitic background in southern Chittagong either left their settlements or were captured by the Moghs to be forcefully employed in Agricultural activities in the Arakan proper. Rohingya leadership today has emerged as a human rights conscious. In the above quote. Abid Bahar The entire region of Arakan changed in 957 A.. Poet Alaol and others introduced this new trend in Rohingya literature.” (P.. A Rohingya from Kyawktaw says “I was born in the village: Ombadi Rwa. and the importance of Muslim and Portuguese mercenaries in Arakan. Such acts were aimed to deny the fact that Rohingya’s history is entirely different from the Indian Bengali migrants.. Myo Pyauk Hmar Soe Kyauk Hla Tai (or The Fear of Losing One’s Race) was widely distributed in 2001. Surprisingly though. in your dreams? Amena: What is happened to me? I saw in my dream that some people were trying to kill us. .000 died at the time . It is a literary work demonstrating problems in Burma and the resultant depiction of the Rohingya nation in distress.. In Burma we were not the only people. was the beginning of Rohingya crisis. the untouchables as they would be called in India they couldn’t be at the same time the descendents of the Mongoloid Rakine. Monk’s Mosque attack: http://sanooaung.. to name only a few.. my father could not turn down the requests of the hundreds of helpless human beings and dropped the idea of leaving the country. There was a relative peace. 1990. although the slavish history of the Rohingyas begins with the annexation of Arakan in 1784. M/4/2503). He has excluded the Rohingyas as if Rohingyas were Budapaya’s favorites and nothing happened to them. (Somebody knocks on the door.. 150 Dr. he would doubtless have a great impact and might succeed in bringing about some radical changes. God. (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. until today. rakhapura. the earliest ancestors of Rohingyas. These were the earliest Muslim settlers and their community in Arakan did not seem to be large in number. b.” “Tears are to chase the xenophobes. Amena and Mabud finished their morning prayer. and my mother says.org/index. We are now some homeless people-the refugees. . Through the discussion.000 soldiers and returned with 20. and who call themselves Roainga. How this is possible if the Chandra language was not similar to Chittagonian? It seems that with the successive Marma invasion from the south. Chins.. Chittagong: Arakan Historical Society. There you go! 2. We fought more among ourselves then against the enemy. who form only 4% of the population as the number 1 enemy. Enayet (Thailand). In this type of thinking Burmese nationalists classify Rohingyas as the Burmese Muslims to justify that these Muslims settled in Burma during the British period. calls the Rohingyas as “foreigners” even as “Bangali influx viruses. Department of anthropology. Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society: A case Study of Inter Ethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas.”((13) The name Akyab in Arakan is also Persian.. if not taken seriously. they must be from Chittagong of present Bangladesh. I am saving my energy for a bigger cause. During the time of Fakaruddin Mubarak Shah (1338-1349) of Gaur.. Nasaka arrested my uncle and took his daughter Shahra with them.500 refugees living in two camps in southern Bangladesh. 93. whereas to Aye Chan and the chauvinistic enthusiasts. an Arakanese record says: When the British administration collapsed by the Japanese occupation. there has not been enough research done on the origins of these people and their languages before the British occupation of Chittagong and Arakan. What needs to be understood is what validates the power base of the Burman and the Rakhine state population from which the army is mostly recruited.. Lately. etc.. Altaf: (Continues laughing at Kirakini) Ha ha ha. Siddiq: You never said that to me! When was that? Amena: Sind Khan liberated Arakan for the Arakanese people in 1430.. The point is. To make war improper seem an unlikely slogan by a fighter king.. after such barbaric rule for so long by the xenophobic army. 236 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 237 Operation Dragon King of 1978 and its aftermath As a part of the systematic genocidal operation.. there are still some Rakhine Burmese people in Arakan says “We have never heard the name “Rohingya. As evident. as a last resort. After most of Hafez’ area voted in favor of Aung San Suu Kyi in the 1990 elections. The Tibeto-Burman Buddhist Rakhines after their conquest of Arakan… Reading the survey felt like I was reading a medieval text.” (19) Prior to the Burmese invasion..” (an unpublished paper) in Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan Workshop. the oral tradition) claims that Chakmas “migrated from a place called Champknager (now Bihar) in India. Siddiq in in grief doesn’t know what to do but to listen to Mabud. The Rohingya genocide of 1942 in which over a 100. near the Bangladesh Burma border. when Burma was separated from British India. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)” says that he was defending his position against Kei Nemoto’s but didn’t provide the details of Nemoto’s work in the bibliography.mcgill. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration. Article 23. in addition to the contemporary Rohingyas exodus. or 170 Dr. But that doesn’t make Rohingyas non Burmese. “indeed” (“They were indeed . But for Aye Chan to reinforce the prejudices with a loaded word “infidel” as if it is an Arakanese Muslim community’s own version of the Rakhine is hypocritical. it derives from his impulsive mind-set of hating Burmese people of other races of mankind. and in 1901 to 762. most of them. Abid Bahar Madame Chair.19 (6) Jacques P. When you have a phone call from a friend received by let’s say your daughter. the paper shows he could only be a popular proto-historian of contemporary Arakan. loudly “Maaaaaaaaaa. . However. I saw a big white bird set near a mountain pass.. leaving people holding only their children. I had visited the Rohingya refugee camps in Ukiya. Muslims who only comprise from 5-10% of the population are identified as the #1 enemy of the Burmese people.. As for language. and at the same time effective. the aboriginals of Arakan. making them a stateless people. Islam says.. Stateless people continue to look for shelter and genocidal activities continue unabated. 5th February.(19) Burmese people irrespective of religions “should focus on fighting poverty. hazy but tried to understand it.. for their historic origin in Arakan. the frontier of Bengal. In this effort. The Latter-Day Kharijites of Kabul March 3. . She had the flashback of what happened in refugee camps and things happened to her on her way to Kanada) Amena: I am going to slay you. if it is not racism. As demonstrated above. the events were happened.” It appears that the name Rohingya has a prehistoric origin in Arakan. (18) According to KHRG report “[I]it is a mistake to pretend that the leaders of the SPDC junta are outsiders or aliens with no connection to the society in which they live. Such works without providing any reference conclude that it didn’t affect the Indians settled in Arakan. Remember. “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire. 2005 The pro military government’s Mogh intellectual Aye Chan’s co-authored the book “Influx Viruses” demeaning Rohingyas as deadly enemies needed to be exterminated… 55. You came as landed immigrants and I came as a student. “Rakhine Ra-zawin.” When BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 75 I checked the details.. Since such plan was not mentioned anywhere. One goal bar is on the soil of east Naff River and another is west Naff River. (5) Rohingya parents give importance to education than entertainment or any other activities. They consider Rohingyas as Indian 28 Dr… Ngazinka Operation—1967-69 12. Ontario.. both Moghs and the Rohingyas are the people of their ancestral land Arakan. through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State.. I was approached by scholars and NGO representatives interested in Burma who asked me pointed questions: What circumstances could lead them to demonize and commit genocide on their fellow citizens in Burma?” Similar questions were repeatedly asked over and over again in conferences I have attended..” Rohingyas look more like Bangalis. Arakan is a very beautiful place. and later added to them were the Arabs.. and Rohingyas. and how he had fled the scene. some time came under Bengal’s influence and at other times it was under Burma’s influence.php?option=com_content&task =view&id=823&Itemid=27 Abid Bahar. Burma’s history is a long story of misfortune. He has been a problem in our community. Mayer (2008) Human Rights: Origins. When time comes.. Gautama the Buddha and Prophet Mohammed never claimed to be God. On April 8. 26 January. In 1430 A. 1957. The Rakhine villages were strengthened by Rakhine youths inviting from other Rakhine villages… 1950 Memorandum by the pubic of Maungdaw demanding fundamental rights and the unconditional repatriation of Rohingya refugees left Arakan in 1942 to Chittagong. Dara said to me: “Keep it with you!” Siddiq: Maa. Giasuddin (Malaysia) Abdur Rahman Faroque (Norway).000 Rohingya has been reported in Bangladesh. Buddhist Communalism in Early Modern Arakan Politics In a society that valued human rights. unlike Aye Chan. Other emerging questions asked that as a minority whether Muslims should understand the elements of Theravada Buddhist culture in cognizance of its own broad range of interests in Burma. a villager reported to Mohammad that his uncle was now in the military post called Napru Camp. The land between Fani River of Bangladesh and Cape Nigra of Burma is geographically more like one territory. because it will make me cry. her chin resting on her left hand. This is the ugly face of ethnic discrimination in Burma.. Like the Rohingyas. Burmese military commandos with red flag tying their necks were deployed at the northern side of Maungdaw. De Barros. I couldn’t say. Burma’s border security force takes money from people on any excuse.” Their demand was turned down and some of them changed tactics and formed a party. Time came for me to get separated from my friends and my near and dear ones and most pathetically from my parents. Muslim and its tribal population. whether it be independent. thinks xenophobia is used by deceitful intellectuals and politicians. (4) Raham-bri in Arabic means the land of Allah’s blessing. finish my homework while she would sit in front of me and my siblings with a cane in her hand just to scare us and slowly she would dismiss the session for our breakfast. Another criterion for gaining citizenship is to be of good character and of sound mind.. Elementary education shall be compulsory.55….000 people as prisoners. Hafez said.. the province was also renamed as the Rakhine state. the Fascist Rakhine leaders were busy inciting their followers. everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)” quoting colonial terms and records identifying the Rohingyas as being the “Chittagonians.. He says… He doesn’t understand that it is a formal media. Since the military leadership’s identification of the “real” enemy. The themes for the stories in the novel were taken from real events taken place in the Rohingya people’s everyday lives in Arakan and elsewhere. I am neither a Rohingya leader nor a Rohingya follower. and tolerance and respect to other Canadians who could be culturally different from you. come in everybody. The statement from the group is a hypocritical attempt to distort the fundamental issue that is at the root of dehumanization of millions of people within Arakan.. 25) Can we blame the Rohingyas under the prevalent circumstance? Their situation was complicated by 1942 riot.arakanland. Abid Bahar BURMA’S MISSING DOTS BURMA’S MISSING DOTS .. (3) It seems. as the leader. by killing his own brother claimed the throne of Northern Burma for himself. “I saw some Muslims kneel down and pay respect to the Buddhist monks. Although the rulers of Burma are mostly responsible for the genocide. My father had some visibly Rakhine features perhaps because most of the soldiers married local women. The Sultan welcomed Noromi kla to serve as an officer in the army. which has seriously curtailed the full exercise of their civil..Contrary to such assertions.. 220 Dr. the military now controls big business. lest the army would know. Bodor Mokam. later on Mohayana Buddhist (See the history of Mohamuni of Buddha statue now in Mandalay. 1954 Memorandum of appeal by Rohingyas demanding fundamental rights and freedom. I asked myself “What happened?” “What happened?” I saw the birds suddenly took flight to their unknown destination. it appears that Aye Chan’s motivation has two dimensions. It appears that he consciously made the above arguments.. “Burmese Invasion of Arakan and the Rise of Non-Bengali Settlements in Chittagong of Bangladesh” Abid Bahar. Never be physical. I will return to Arakan! Siddiq: You have so much benevolence for your people. Mabud: Did you know maa. Its key advisor is a retired academic—Dr. in its attempts to mobilize the population against the “danger within” have caused over a million refugees to flee across the border into neighboring countries. Chris Lewa. destroy minority places and replace them with their ethnic names. Siddiq: If you are a Burmese why then they have killed my father and my sister and forced you out? How does that make you a Burmese? They don’t think we are Burmese! Amena: Their thinking doesn’t make what I am.. But if you get involved in extremism… we had 10 acres of land..asp?p=1&Id=20. People had fine time. the Govornor replied that the government of Burma had noting to do with it.com/scholars-column/the-strange-murder-of-king-thiri-thudhamma. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro.. there is no problem in establishing peaceful relations with Buddhists. in spite of the fact that such positive developments are happening rather late when the Rohingyas are also seeing the beginning of their end in Arakan. especially the ethnic nationalities.com. Abid Bahar policy” which advocated that “Burma is for Burmans. Like you. technically also it lacks organization and structure.. But what is evident in a similar situation in India was that the Ulama in India sided not with the Muslim League but with the Congress. In the absence of a source for Aye Chan’s information. She was sweating. Rohingya Refugees interviewed in Japan and in Bangladesh to find out information inside Arakan revealed this information.. “Where are you?” I lost my grip! I lost my mother. . we have surveyed some sample materials in the province of Arakan. Please invite our people from all the areas of Arakan… Now we have to reorganize our cultural traits. a Chakma academician originally from Chittagong Hill Tracts was interviewed in Canada.. Arakan (Burma). in line with more of Burmanization. if you strive very much to become an English Canadian and you reject everything about Rohingya culture as being primitive. “the color of our skin is too obvious a marker. quoting Charney. drastic restrictions are imposed on the Rohingyas on their movement from a police station to another. also known as “Burmanization” for minorities that are racially and religiously similar to the Burmans. our village—where we were brought up. racial discrimination. Thirdly. directly compatible with. When and where they have learnt Chittagonian? Loofler’s assumption directs to this end that Chakmas adopted Chittagonian Bengali during the 15th to 17th century (8) Chakmas lived in southern Chittagon attested by the fact that in Ramu there is still a place called Chakmarkul. Burma’s ultra-nationalist celebrities. Where did all these people called Arakani Muslims go who began to settle in Arakan from the 8th century? Where did the decedents of the soldiers of Wali Khan and Shandhi Khan who married with the local women in the 15th century go? This Muslim army of 30.8 percent of the population of the Arakan (Rakhine) State (Immigration and Manpower Department 1987: I-14).. he completed his thesis entitled: The Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society: A Case Study of Ethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas. (3) Finding similarities: Muslims believe that Allah had sent more than 124. Shahid bhai: What did you do during the week. The military’s prize captive is the celebrated Aung San Sui Ki. she rushed to the spot.51 Mystery Behind the Chakma and the Rohingya’s Linguistic Similarities . and 2007 have come and gone and yet the people’s suffering continues. (Before 957 A. . wao-global@yahoogroups.179 Section 3: Arakanese Monk’s Burmese Way to Democracy . more inclusive. “We want a real king. but flexible and could not be understood outside of the context in which they were socially and historically situated. For “What is this” a Chakma would say “Yian ki?” in Rohingyalish. 2005. These attributes worked to keep them endure even the unbearable ordeal of the refugee life. The contemporary history of Western Burma was written mostly by xenophobic and tendentious writers. in particular. Surprisingly. you care so much about our people.15) In the above when he says “most of these migrants settled down in the Mayu Frontier Area. I saw none around me. Ashin Nayaka.Dhaka: Co-operative Book Society Limited.. In 1982. need authorization to travel outside of their villages. it appears to be a Rakhine xenophobic gossip.com 60882 CONTENTS Preface.. Mohammed Abbas.” http://bangladesh-web. Chattagramer Ittihas Prosongo. It is possible that the various religions are just the various forms of a common faith with different approaches. anti-Muslim xenophobia in Arakan which might destabilize peace in the region.” I looked around. intended to create fear among his ethnic Rakhines and the Burmese against Burma’s Rohingya people. It shows that after all Burmese Buddhist people don’t have to fear the Rohingyas because they are neither “foreigners” nor dangerous… I think this is wonderful about Rohingya people. During the Burmese occupation there was a breakdown of the indigenous labor force both in size and structure.. Canada. From the above analysis one can draw the conclusion that Rohingya people’s racial Indo-Semitic and linguistic similarity with southern Chittagonian people is not a proof of their origin in Bangladesh.. I have never seen my sister or even saying I have never seen my neighbor. (5) 96 Dr. Most of them began to settle in Sittwe. Ashin Nayaka’s style is a typical Burmese way to democracy by most Arakanese ultra-nationalists: xenophobia at home and great democratic demonstration in abroad. has the right to equal pay for equal work. Burma’s British colonial history was brief—from 1824-1948—and during this time. Your father had no income here. xenophobia and related intolerance. (4) The contemporary Arakani leader’s quest for such a past of how to make Arakan great again led different Arakanese social and political groups to develop these various visions. Burma has developed two distinctive models of rule: the military’s model of rule by force and the democratic model of leadership with citizens’ participation. tell us more about Arakan when there was no war.. report received from eye-witnesses says. “The people who call themselves Rohingyas are the Muslims of Mayu Frontier area.. All these gradual tightening measures finally led to the new 1982 Constitutional Act that declared Rohingyas to be stateless people. xxx (1). sailing for the East due to wind direction were almost certainly washed to the shores of Arakan.. robbery and rape was exaggerated when it reached Burma India border (Ba Maw 1968: 78). (9) Mogh Memories of the past and the rise of anti-Rohingya racist jolts and shaking in Arakan. Forward p. You can submit the suggested names and their details to me. one probable answer to the broad question why both the Chakma people and the Rohingya people each from different racial background speak the same language could be that historically they were the citizens of the Chandra Indian Mohayana Buddhist kingdom. She was also thinking about something. (6) Different Rakhine groups of Arakan are: (a) -ALD (Arakan League for Democracy) 11 MP seats winner in 1990 election. why in Burma../Suite 205 Chicago. Habibullah. in whole or in part. “Rohingya children. In the audience. The term Rohingya was in common use centuries ago. In this present state of affairs. D. South Asian Studies Centre. even if you have deserted a Burmese government job in a foreign embassy and is now a powerful democracy movement leader in USA or in UK. June 22. when in the name of giving shelter but at the king’s order was robbed and the entire family members and many of his associates were massacred.) and U Mohiuddin of New York and the other capable leadership who have contacts with Arab Organizations should work in this direction.. Moshe Yoger. instead of a source of fear could be a source of strength in exchanging “innovative ideas. With such material and spiritual assets. Myanmar (Burma). Another Yoke on Rohingya Muslims. REPORT ON THE SITUATION FOR MUSLIMS IN BURMA http://www.. which qualifies this priceless effort a handbook for Burma readers.) 6-10. what shapes their world views. some displaced Rohingya families must have returned to their ancestral homes in Arakan.(12) During U Nu’s time Hindu fundamentalist influence in Burma became even greater. sickness….. in a future democratic Burma. if you are a law abiding citizen of Canada and know how to nurture. 1959a Kayah revolt. widowhood. 1993/1990 “the promotion and execution of policies by a state or its agents which result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a group .. during the Chandra period some of these fleeing tribes from Burma took shelter in Arakan where they had learned Chandra language (now called Chittagonian. among others. It is my understanding is that Southern Chittagong is almost all inhabited by the Rohingya people. 1947 Aung San (1915-1947) before he could become the first prime minister of the independent Burma. 21) In the above Aye Chan quotes the notorious Rakhine State People’s Council as a biased source that identifies the Rohingyas as the Kulas.. a local Muslim.. Whenever. Arakan be continued to be called as Arakan. many Muslim clerics (Moulovis) playing BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 71 a leading role.. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar). Da Asia: decadas III & IV. In the early 1950s that a few Bengali Muslim intellectuals of the northwestern part of Arakan began to use the term “Rohingya” to call themselves. England: Footprint handbooks Ltd. it is more than xenophobia. Myat Mon Operation—February 1969-71 13. Strangely. a group of people gossiping in a house to get rid of boredom after having food in Tin May village in Arakan State were being penalized for the act. 1908. my father took me before the sunset to our village graveyard “Foirtua” to offer final prayer beside the grave of my grandfather and other deceased relatives and have a last visit. who now live in deplorable condition in Bangladesh.php?hidDate=20060215&hi dType=FEA&hidRecord=0000000000000000089087.. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. Aye Kyaw—who co-authored the BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 181 infamous 1982 Burma Citizenship Law that is at the heart of Rohingya Diaspora. “The events during the war contributed the Chittagonians’ fervent sense of alienation from the heterogeneous community of the Arakan. Abid Bahar Mohammedans mentioned who married dark—skinned local Indian women and settled in Arakani villages must have been some of the earliest ancestors of the Rohingyas. Burmese Military government and their Mogh collaborators claim that these refugees are the Chittagongnian people originally from Bangladesh..com/2007/12/15/photos-ofanti-muslim-riots-in-bagopegu/ (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) “I saw some Muslims kneel down and pay respect to the Buddhist monks. For example. In the below. Situated in South East Asia between China. In his selective use of materials. there is no doubt that the motive behind this absurd claim is based on self propagating myth to prove Mogh’s aboriginal status over the “Kulas. But he decided to send me with my aunt and other relatives to Bangladesh to save at least my life. when one is removed from the corrupt chain. Culturally the Chandra-Rohingya 128 Dr. Abid Bahar the bird that used of little pebbles to drink water from an almost empty jar etc. They wonder aloud why anyone should change the military government when it has already made so many changes and kept Burma united. Otto Harrassowitz. he is identified by the Burmese military and their collaborators (Aye Kyaw of the ANC and Aye Chan likes) as simply the Chittagonians. local Rakhines also found a great golden Buddha image. “Why did you call me bad names this time last year?” “That cannot be.. In this Chan as expected seems to have failed to keep consistency in his arguments. in this “frontier region. morals and stories.. in the countryside and remote areas gave way to banditary. About 6 months before the independence the country’s leader Aung San was killed. Alamgir Serajuddin expresses rather bluntly the reasons behind the historic Arakani problem by saying. and all the way up to Papua New Guinea.000 Muslim army” headed by General Sandi Khan… his journey to Chittagong.000 men to death: that wherever they found a pretty woman.. Surprisingly. But I am happy 132 Dr. After the defeat of Sultan Giasuddin Mahmud Shah in the hands of Sher Shah Sur in 1538 there was a weak central government in Gaur.” Boston Review. which has seriously curtailed the full exercise of their civil. Again what are the circumstances and conditions that keep the army in power? Are there networks of rank and file civilian members who collaborate with the army? There are reports that in parallel with the democracy movement demonstrations.. Canada could be a hell for you.” (30) Michael Charney concludes. 1976..D. About Buddhism. The Arakaniese Muslims and Hindus that continued to escape to Chittagong ro settle there were called by the Chittagonian Bengalis as the “Rohi. 2000..-Harn Yawnghwe Director of the Brussels-based Euro-Burma Office. the military government has successfully identified its enemy #1. or stranger Yakain (Rakhing). helped to the development of about two thirds of the people of Cox’s Bazar district..”(14) The Quran says. there must be other important factors present. what triggered the Rohingyas’ statelessness is not that Rohingyas are foreigners in Burma. As a Sociological work. As a result. (11) Surprisingly. One day I went out to look for her and she appeared out of no where as if with the glances of a deer. .. Kirakini enters with his friend Rasheed. historian Ashrafu Alam. what role do they play in “building reactionary consciousness and ideology of the group. Aye Chan has neglected the Bengali sources that recorded the accounts of migration to southern Chittagong.. Saeed Khan wrote: “People have migrated for work or love or whatever reason during the entire history of mankind . Collins says that during the medieval period. the army of engineering battalion who are duty for fencing at Burma-Bangladesh border entering the Nan Tha Daung village seizing all the said lethal weapons from the said villagers. It is used by the international community. they recruited about 20 boats to take them across. Buddhism should help to promote human rights and the dignity of human beings.. nationality or religion. 116 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 117 The first one being the Arab settlement began from the 8th century from which the name Rohingya is known to have derived. Burma lost the Arakan coastal strip.php?menu=2 Clive Parker. ultra-nationalist bigots. Rohingyas have distinct racial features that set them apart from Burmese and Rakhines. There are still another 1 and a half million Rohingyas live in Arakan under serious hardship and repression. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal.org/index.. Rohingyas like the Rakhines of Southern Chittagong. the Rohingya are now seeking to travel to Thailand and then make their way overland to Malaysia. USA .. Historians approach Burma from two perspectives—that of its history of dictatorial rule. Portuguese offsprings. Surprisingly. most live there as Bangladeshis. mapping a field of historical and Cultural research.. The military’s policy was the removal of Rohingyas “from civil posts. where due to the Aryan invasion from the north. In line with 18 Dr. and as such. He now has earned his notoriety as the Rohingya spoiler BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 149 #1.” This seemingly an academic work is full of belittling terms and biases.” To them Rohingyas settled in Arakan after 1925 when Arakan came under British occupation. In their exiles what is needed is that they are needed to keep up their identity alive.” “viruses. “Pen is mightier than sword. Paul Hunt: Under the 1982 Citizenship Law. (instead of today’s half and half Muslim and Mogh population in Arakan) it is almost certain that Arakan would be a Muslim inhabited region much like it is in Chittagong of present Bangladesh. [when] the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms of their communal characteristics. The Indian Minority in Burma. the governor of Bengal that took shelter in Arakan. Abid Bahar.” BANGKOK. Abid Bahar Aye Chan’s Rohingya as the Illiterate Brute Aye Chan says. During this time the neighborhood of Mruak—U city’s South Eastern region named as Kalapanzan and a trading port named “Bandar” a Persian name meaning port were populated by the Rohingyas. Everyone. her tears continued to pour on me like a torrent. 1991-92.. a symbol of Arakanese pride of independence. trust.burma/archives/199706/msg00422. but from southern Arakan. His dehumanizing work shows his analytical failures in his mixing of ethnic politics with scholarship. Aung San and Suu Ki.” I remember her to wake me up in the morning to do my prayers. British Zamindary system had not been known as a pro-people system. One goal bar is on the soil of east Naff River and another is west Naff River. vast numbers of Burmese people also gather in cities and townships to show their continued support for the military. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)” in U Shw Zan and Aye Chan’s Influx Viruses. there has been genocide going on in Arakan against Rohingya Muslims. “Islam in Arakan: An interpretation from the Indian perspective: History and the Present. In addition. University of Windsor. nothing felt good to me. However.. Historically speaking. Dhaka: 1995.” (32) It seems that despite Rohingya’s historic origin in Arakan.” .org/wiki/Islam_in_Burma About the Rohingyas.. Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations. Fatema kept her eyes on her family members in the group as best she could. Kitchner.” 1044-77 Rise of Burmese pagan king Anwardhta in Burma proper with Teraveda political Buddhism and “reduces North Arakan” into a province of Burma. . In doing this Kirakini allows space for Rakhines to find ways to ridicule our people. a model of the Burmese medieval kings. M. But the disconcerting thing is if his paper was written mainly to refute Kei Memoto’s arguments.. Indian Buddhists continued to take shelter in Sri Lanka.101 History of the Rohingyas is the History of Suffering. in 1978 the author personally visited the Rohingya refugee camps and saw the suffering of especially women and children in refugee camps in Chittagong of Bangladesh..” Rakhing Guardian1.buddhist-tourism. so the local poor people have been facing many difficulties to support their family members. “The Muslim ‘Rohingya’ of Burma. were sent to Arakan proper and settled in villages. B. we don’t have to go very far” and claims himself as a historian. She had chest pain all through the journey. I heard a sound. I had a call from Abu Dhabi complaining about his postings. We ask whether or not these 123 124 Dr. Moreover.. and have BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 219 escaped to Bangladesh in large numbers. military commandos are being deployed in northern Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships. 2005. . They never came back. I saw some of the Rakhines helped them to capture the Rohingya villagers. Sahab asks a simple question: How could a 5 year child forced out of Arakan with his parents could be the one labeled as an illegal immigrant entered Arakan in 1825? What is this? Tell me the answer as a human being? You don’t have to be a peace-loving Buddhist or a democracy movement leader to understand this? You just have to be a human being of the 21st century to break the ice that divides us between xenophobes and the peaceful Rakines. one is Aung San Suu Ki is in jail and is unable to lead the nation. there developed a Muslim religious ethnic minority which is spread all around Burma… college professors. he remains silent about the Burman colonial settlement in Arakan during the same period. dasas. (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. A 500. Then.Tongo. the population is being forced to leave Arakan because of a deliberate policy of cleansing. Indeed. Muslim work gangs have been forced to build new construction for non-Muslim residents on the land.. haa. Rohingyas were conveniently identified by the Rakhine extremists as being the “Chittagonians. once through Wali Khan and later Sindkhan to help the Arakanese forces to liberate Arakan from Burmese occupation.. (the old Society and Culture of Chittagong). But the Champaknager could have been confused with the Chandra kingdom in Arakan. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 155 they that gave us a gift and when we opened it we found a pair of pen and there in a note said. Michael W. But suddenly there was a big war. violated. I felt as if her touches clenched my body. Also Willem van Schendel (ed. giving way to the public disorder (Owen 1946: 26). the British caused the present confusion of identifying them as the “Chittagonians. A Short historical background of Arakan.php?option=com_content&tas k=view&id=182&Itemid=70 Abid Bahar. the language of Arakkhadesa was proto-Chittagonian which the Chakmas and the Rohingyas as the aborigines of Arakan had learned in Arakan..” (2) Interestingly. 2000 of the 1978 refugees.’ International Studies Quarterly. 1947. it could destabilize regional harmony. in the Arakanese Theravada Buddhism. In the following a sample of Chakma and Rohingya words are presented showing their high degree of similarities: BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 87 For “what is this” in English. instead of the Burmese “Tsit-ta-gungin”. However. This doesn’t seem to be an ordinary enclave. At last the long awaited moment came to bid farewell to our beloved home and homestead—where we were born. for the Burma he loves is clearly a racist Burma.” 2005.. hidden by undergrowth in the forests of Arakan. 15) Contrary to his assertion. because of ruthless oppression. http://www. various forms of extortion and arbitrary taxation.. Religion. July 16. 1995. Rohingyas and the Chakmas speaking the same language called Chittagonian. Planetarium Station 2005). during this time..com/index_4. 15) Aye Chan identifies the above mentioned sources as “treatises. Thus. We had two cows for milk. the kings used used Muslim names and the king paid taxes to the Bengali king. Endnotes: (1) Aye Kyaw.” I said.http://www. the term “Chittagonian” for Rohingyas had some colonial ambiguity for identifying them which will be discussed later. unfolding of reason in history. part 11. Some Moghs seeing us new in the area began calling us “Chittagonian” even knowing very well that the military is pushing Rohingyas out to Chittagong. (4) Budapawa’s Invasion of Arakan (1784) The 1784 Burmese invasion of Arakan was considered by historians as a genocide for its ruthlessness massacre of Arakanese population of both Rohingya and Rakhine groups. Xenophobic writings based on radical ideology ignore people’s history and breed intolerance… Barely audible. These were the “Kulas” located mostly in the north of racially Indo—Sematics are more likely to be the Rohingyas of the Hindu-Muslim Chandras. “U Nu as the devoted Buddhist was pressured by the wealthy and influential Hindi merchants and the former ordered the prohibition of slaughtering the cattle. They now call themselves as the Marma. their influence in the Arakani administration was significant. squatting on a dusty path in front of a shack.. For dehumanizing the Burmese born Rohingyas.. But again Rohingyas in southern Chittagong as “seasonal” workers would return home to Chittagong. forced labour has been imposed. A peaceful person makes a peaceful family.. and publicly uses ethnic jokes (understandable only to his followers) but with Aye Chan a bit more organized claim that no one has ever heard of the word “Rohingya. the founding father of Burma decreed. There were other Mohayana based Hindu kingdoms of similar type in Cambodia before most of those lands were converted either to Theraveda Buddhism or to Islam.. 1938 Buddhist-Muslim riot 1942 Japanese occupation of Burma and Burmese ultranationalists massacre minorities such as Karens.org/InterreligiousDialogue/islamic_ buddhist_dialogue. more importantly they lost their race that they love and respected for many many centuries. South Asian Studies Centre. “I nearly fainted and I can not remember how I got back home” she said. the Moghs almost completely depopulated southern Chittagong. Then again he is saying that Muslims remained backward. asp# TEHELKA—Friday.. U Mra Wa. the king of Arakan along with his large followers took asylum at Gaur. and Critiques. 1979. and let me tell you. Ever since he stayed home until he died. an Arakanese would say he only got as far as Arakan. So it is very important that learning English and the other necessary communication skills is the important tool to adapt and be successful in Canadian society. the Mogul prince started from Dhaka arrived in Lakhipur of Comilla then to Monipur.000. c.” Today Arakan’s glory exists only as an ego in the mind of some xenophobic and Western trained historians. It looks beautiful but the weather is getting very cold. Arakan was conquered by the Burmese army through genocidal killings of Buddhist. June 22. . Contrary to the claims. 000 by Sindkhan went to Arakan to help the Arakani king settled in the Kaladan valley. Bangladesh-US defense relations. and 190 Dr.. The Illegal Muslims in Arakan. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family. promoting prejudices such as Muslims/ Christians marry Burme women to destroy the race.. They were not returned to their original hearths and homes. you are arrogant! Karakani: Don’t call me arrogant. I know you are getting help. 1948. free of cost for the army or the police outposts. anti-Bangladesh and 148 Dr. The Rakhines in the ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya history recently changed the name Akyab into a Buddhist name Sittwe. Abid Bahar the trucks and buses returned to their destination quickly. 30 November 2007 TEHELKA “Shan-EUgroup” Shan-EUgroup@yahoogroups. I was also being attacked by Kirkinis for no reason. It was the same response every one gave me. Abdul Haque Chawdhury. Chandra Muslim vs. In making such assertions.. 16) While Aye Chan reports about the Rakhine exodus to Bengal due to the Burmese invasion of Arakan.. not all of its people situated in fringe areas speak Burmese.. The soldiers grew progressively more BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 231 hostile. But some elements have adopted the radical idea of founding a separate Muslim state. a large number of Rohingyas also migrated to Chittagong and mingled with the racially similar Chittagonian people. my heart pounded not 160 Dr. flexibility and open-mindedness which were clearly revealed in Prophet Muhammad’s dialogue with others even if they were idolaters and this is why Allah praises him. It seems to me that to the Rohingya people.m. thus. Chulalongkorn University.. Mothers’ sacrifices are appreciated.” 2005. Kachins and Chinese. and certain Rakhines determined to drive out the Muslims of Arakan. now drinking coffee) Siddiq: You never told me all about it in detail. 2004. Leider used the term “marginal culture” referring to the “fluidity” and the contemporary problems in Arakan. me. This tragic event triggered anger and frustration both in Arakan among Suja’s followers that accompanied him and also in the Moghul capital Delhi against the brutal murder of the royal family. Like a hunter we have order to kill few and scare the rest so that you leave our country. This situation is not peculiar to Rohingyas. . there seem to be no connection between the term Moghs with Rakkhas. they claim that they are the direct descendents of the Rakkhasas which seems entirely contradictory. implying that they be exterminated from Arakan. These kings and rulers of different races and cultures fought for its lordship and now the region became part of at least two different countries….. It was not unlike the policy of European countries in former times… in 1784 Burma occupied Arakan and the subsequent neglect under the Burmese rule and the continued Burmese annexation of the Arakani territory turned Arakan into a tiny and backward province of Burma-no doubt it is the price of Arakanese Mogh’s unforgivable historic boisterous performances. it was the statue of the Indian Chandra people. True.. Article 18. Under the circumstance of the nonexistence of Burmese language in Arakan. so he sent among them a big Stork that soon set to work gobbling them all up.W. Dr. (17) 1959. (2) There is even a Rohingya para (village) in Akyab. I remember we kept running and running for safety. the ANC has not learned to evolve into a pluralistic. “O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female. Abid Bahar Arakan. I also met senior Rohingya leaders of the time. the survey doesn’t conclude that there hasn’t been any democratic-minded Arakanese group inside or outside of Arakan. (president of the Amyothar Party) favor of Rohingya citizenship. followed by the next preparation for us to go to school.000 Rohingyas.000 have returned home amidst utter despondency and grief. The eyes of everyone were full of tears.. floating near the same place.. S. for he himself said that the Rohingya parties wanted recognition under their name—Rohingya—which was denied to them by the junta. Teach them the story of xenophobic people who caused trouble in Arakan and other people who helped Rohingyas both in Arakan and in refugee camps in Bangladesh.. Maung: Mabud. This number does not include certain ethnic groups who could be considered the most dangerous enemies of all. An English version in print format as the following was also made available) The author with Mira Malidzanovic (the coordinator of the Kitchner Reception centre) 164 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 165 INTRODUCTION: Ladies and gentleman! Madam Mira Malidzanovic.. Abid Bahar Faroque: Why did you leave? Kirakini: Man! You have invited some bustards that is why I went to eat out with Rasheed. Nepal.. another Arakani xenophobic work is. The “Majhee” (boatman) came to inform us of the arrival of the boats with which we would make the voyage. Colonel Nasruddin’s Turks occupied up to Bamaw. . Truly. compassion is one of most important virtues in both religions. and the list goes on… Aye Chan fails to use cross-cultural references and cross checking of data to verify the records in its totality. It is a great job Siddique Engineer and also other educated people did for our people in the literary arena… But this did not suit them. He said to me that his forefathers were Rohingyas that escaped the 1942 genocide. Abid Bahar Amena: I saw a dream. inferior. The generic racist slur of ‘kala’ (black) used against them as the perceived “foreigners” has also negative connotations when referring to Burmese Muslims. educators. from 1948 to 1962. if not hostile. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 217 1959 Burma agreed with East Pakistan Governor Zakir Hossain to take back Rohingya refugees who have taken shelter in Chittagong in 1958. those who returned have become victims of double persecutions.2. ..” We kept walking and we had no water. agonizing death by starvation. a xenophobic Rakhine writer calls these returnees to their homes as the settlements of foreigners in Arakan… referring to the tradition of another Burmese king of the late 18 century and its effect on 19th century politics. Rohingya leaders began to separate their British labeled identity (of being the Indian immigrant Muslims settled in Rangoon. For the strong similarities in their languages. the benchmark of his measurement is not clear. as evident in Germany and in former Yogoslavia.. Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society: A case Study of Inter Ethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas. the two major cultural trends are English and French.. Abid Bahar 1947 Panglong minority conference held in Panglong. but the story of their large scale persecution and oppression begins with the beginning of the 20th century. Birai galee Bighai Khai” (If you stay home Moghs will get you and if you go out to the forest. was a more peaceful and prosperous region compared to the troubled Arakan region of Burma where the memory of Burman massacre some three decades earlier was still fresh in the collective psyche of uprooted and exiled Rohingyas including their descendants. Aye Chan’s misadventure seems to be that.. U Gaffour. Rohingyas were fleeing from different parts of Arakan to Bangladesh to save their life from the military crackdown. I must say this to you: You will be happy to see most of the Rohingya children quickly learn how to speak in English but to the Rohingya mother who suffered in silence in the Rohingya refugee camps that shouldn’t be accepted as enough.. In this direction. recorded in Francis Buchanan. Aye Chan is not alone. Dec 6. When she appeared to muster enough strength to tell her story. A. These xenophobes are playing with human lives with their excuse of race and racial superiority. Rahman Farooq. The Rohingyas are often compelled to provide rice. A great deal of works has been done by the military’s civilian collaborators on the province of Arakan (Rakhine province) claiming that there is the existence of an enclave in Burma. Therefore ‘Mahomet’ means ‘Great Mercy’. “The population at the time of British occupation in 1826 did not exceed 100. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 113 Reacting to the Burmese policy of extermination of the Rohingyas.. “Jaffar Kawal became the commander in chief and his lieutenant was Abdul Husein. Eventually they met up with small groups of refugees also traveling to the river. Seeing his mutilated. Nur.”(1) The traditional belief among ethnic Burmans—that they are the citizens of Burma and the minorities are only the strangers in their land—is a direct result of the model established by the Burmese kings. We have to do some good work for the community. ban on marriage. Burma’s problems are even deeper than they appear. In addition. “Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society:A Case Study of Interethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas”:An Unpublished M. 1992. You see our young leaders. “artistic work is considered to be a fundamental aspect of human culture. Charney.116 Living in A Glass House . and even on my cloths. felt the need to officially change the name from Mogh to Rakhine. html (4) Noam Chomsky. “Ban on Marriages.. (c) Pauktaw in Akyab District 25 villages. . 17) understandably. Therefore. one command’. . a sunken checked emaciated woman in her early 20’s stared blank. . Alam.) She was taken to the hospital). and two of our Rohingya men were arrested and soon dumped in the village paddy field. in whole or in part. . a British scholar visiting Burma in 1799 met some people who identified themselves as the Rohingyas. intolerance and oppression cannot serve as an ideal model for making a country great. a revisit to Aye Chan’s imaginary enclave with “Influx Viruses” shows that the enclave is there only in Aye Chan’s imagination. they began to take shelter in the Mayu frontier. “The Burmese government assured that it was the work of an extremist group of Akyab and took back the refugees. Bangladesh government and Bangladeshi researchers particularly in applied social science. I am also surprised seeing this xenophobic person’s writing style. start of another ordeal. Leider’s work is interesting. (the old Society and Culture of Chittagong). Muslims serving the Royal palace as ministers were also massacred. In Burma. Here we are talking about the Maritime Asia and Oceania and the coastal Burma. I am confronted with the old question. They know the difference between democracy-lovers and the reactionaries. There were few other families with them. Little by little. Chris Lewa of Forum Asia says Rohingyas were being discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity and religion. What about anti-Rohingya Rakine vandals who are the ones destroying Rohingya properties. I believe Aye Chan here refers to their ancestors having supposedly settled after 1826. He says. without any limitation due to race… Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. our citizenship papers were taken back..’s demanding autonomous state or direct government rule or Rohingya parity in services on grant of Arakan state.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 30. 27. The area was as if a sea of refugee camps. The Rohingyas: A Short Account of the History and Culture. Previous to this there were powerful Muslim advisors worked with Burmese kings and in the recent past there were government Ministers in Aung San’s and also in the U Nu’s cabinet.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=76 Aye Chan’s. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 73 It is known that when ethnic cleansing madness begins it affects innocent people more than criminals. 11. Abid Bahar Copyright © 2010 by Dr.15 Xenophobic Burmese Literary Works—A Problem of Democratic Development in Burma. Abid Bahar Arakan was very much a part of India.. Mother. The findings of the research shows. The reminiscence of the tragic stories of the most heinous Pogrom of 1942 which is popularly known as “Biyallisher Khara Khari” still shudders the hearts of those who had witnessed the tragedy.. I have interviewed them for this research. a typical Arakani xenophobe had to say. Burma began a history that can be summed up as a “lost half-century” spent in “poverty… A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire. The Taleban claim that the age-old Buddhist monuments are “an insult to Islam”. I think mothers in every culture are the same. Nur Hashim (Canada) and hope to meet many more in future. Enclave. Our people are suffering for so long! Salekh: Our leaders never did anything good for us! Mabud: I personally don’t blame our old generation leaders. traders.. the first victim of the Burmese refugee problem is their country. Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Burmese Society:A Case Study of Interethnic Relations between the Burmese and the Rohingyas. Norway Burmese Rohingya Community in Australia (BRCA) Burmese Rohingya Association in Japan (BRJA). His logic is similar to W Bush’s logic that says: “if you are not with him you must be with my enemy. U Ashraf. (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community.. They are called in Burmese Thum Htaung Khunya (three tousand seven hundred) BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 215 1826-1948 BRITISH COLONIAL RULE: MOGH-ROHINGYA RETURNEES TO ARAKAN 1824 First Anglo-Burmese war and the British occupation of Arakan andTenasserim. The kings advise to his invading commenders that “If one cuts down the ‘Kyu’ reed. in laying the claim that Rohingyas were “Indian workers” the chauvinistic writers didn’t take note of the Ne Win-created 1962 race-riot in Burma that had led to the mass exodus of Indians and Bengalis to leave Burma.. for my failing.. Kirakini: You bustards! You don’t know anything. 1947 with the signing of the Panglong Agreement.com..181. Article 8. He contacted his boss who allowed him time to recuperate from the tragedy..London: Oxford University Press.freerohingyacampaign. and they later became loose and fell down..” Faiz: We have to stop acting like frogs..) BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 133 Siddiq: Maa! Tell us what do you remember about Arakan? Mabud: Let’s hear about Arakan from my mother. ahistorical statements. in his retirement he teaches human rights to some of his like-minded Burmese people in Australia. Islamic leaders in Rangoon believe that attitudes among the predominantly Buddhist Burmese population began to change from tolerance to persecution after General Ne Win seized power in a military coup in 1962. and due in large part to Lemkin’s efforts. “To introduce the same justice system. our young and spirited leaders are now working together. it is a tendency in history-writing called reductionism. The Rakhaing lost their land that they owned for many many centuries. describing how the group was stopped by Burmese civilians and soldiers. this is definitely due to their racially prejudiced outlook.” in Burma. “ . from the tyrannical medieval kings to its contemporary military rulers. Rohingya leaders interviewed wish that Arakan acknowledge once again its tradition of diversity. EPISODE 5: God Bless our Mothers! (Mabud’s house. They continued firing until one boat had capsized and sunk. then on the check. Aye Chan. without permission in writing from the copyright owner. after all we are talking about human lives. But research on Burma shows this type of interpretation to be ridiculously incomplete. they don’t look like us. it is designed with genuine academic pitch and a closer look shows that it is one of the (2) BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 45 (8) (9) most popular xenophobic literatures of Arakan written from the military’s perspective.http://www. Shahid Alam. While trekking that long arduous Apawa mountain pass I have seen many old and disabled men and women falling down dying while climbing the rugged hazardous mountain and most painful was the scene of the groaning pregnant women while giving birth to their baby in that dense forest.”). land confiscation and forced evictions. In return for the help.. They traveled 40 kilometers to the Ghacharibil Crossing of the Naaf River…rakhapura. it is the inciters.” the ultranationalists are the mainstream trends in Arakan. held on July 16… if we take this as a historical event.” The similarities in the language of the Chakmas of Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Rohingyas of Arakan are striking. Endnotes (1) (2) Alamgir Serajuddin.. . . and she seemed too weak to move forward. Rohingya history records Hindu king of Chandra dynasty Mahat—Sandaya ascended the throne of Arakan in 788 A. held a meeting in Rangoon and demanded the formation of “Arakanistan” for the Arakanese people (British Library. in one day soon after the conquest of Arakanthe Burmans put 40.” BANGKOK. Captain Htin Kyaw Operation—1959 09. doesn’t care to cite any source for his information about history.. Access to food should not be used as a tool of oppression and expulsion. it was destined for a permanent change. the service sector and the bureaucracy. I came to Dhaka.170.” (10) Michael W.” (1) It is reported that such an approach is particularly used by the Burman and the Rakhine ultranationalists. Burma’s Buddhist monks have a history of involvement in ethnic violence. an isolated province in the western part of the country across Naaf River as boundary from Bangladesh. different from the Bengali Chittagonian women wearing Sari. I now felt protected in my mother’s abundance in love. Then I thought they are also not alive. Hindu and here in Burma’s Buddhist environment.. The other similarities are that ethics is given priority. Kalim. affairs have deteriorated so badly that in today’s Burma even trivial acts such as gossiping after a meal to break the tedium can land people in serious problems with the administration.” Now this made Jove angry.” http://www. 22) If the above version is true. It was in Imamuddin Para under Buthidaung Township in the Burmese province of Arakan. not of the people. we have big problems. condemn. We have to work from wherever we are located with international agencies.000 strong Burmese army… Abid Bahar. 26) To Aye Chan “Muslim agriculturists from Northern Arakan. While in Bangladesh. The rise of the contemporary Buddhist fundamentalist extremism began from the BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 99 30’s and in Arakan in 1940 and 1947 in Arakan led to the contemporary age of Rakhine created mythologies against the Rohingyas people. Burma Gazettier: Akyab District… Some scholars believe that the name Rohingya derived from “Mrohaung” the name of the city. she will be confused to think why you are praising her. Then the Frogs repented when too late. written mostly by seemingly well informed and educated Rakhine intelligentsia. Since there were Zamindars from both Rakhines and fewer from the Rohingyas. ok maa and don’t exhaust yourself thinking about anything that will trouble you. Burma reverted to BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 17 its melancholy medieval destiny. Arakan almost became depopulated. I have listened to every line carefully. In a multiethnic country like Burma.. In addition. heard the one’s drowning said” Maa! Maa! Maa! When tide swept through the boat. Rathedaung. nor the more recent exoduses due to the military rule of Burma..B. the Burmans put 40.000 men to Death: that wherever they found a pretty Woman.(33) True. I know the history. Advocate Nurul Islam (U.D. and humanitarian groups. and I had the privilege to meet him. birth or other status. reads like a “Who’s Who” of human rights violators in the country. Abdul Haque Chawdhury. Calgary. Where did the decedents of the captured Bengalis forcefully brought to Arakan by the Portuguese in the 15th century to work in agricultural lands go? Well. But the progressive Rakhine and Rohingya groups show great interest in the model of the founders of the Mrauk U dynasty. 1967. ((New York.. 16) Chan. 11th December. there were many proposals for her marriage. Chakma’s differences in language with the Arakani Moghs suggest that Chakmas lived in Arakan before the beginning Mongoloid Mogh invasion of Arakan in 957 A. Jacques P. the population is being forced to leave Arakan because of a deliberate policy of cleansing. Today. Faiz: (Faiz was on the computer) Look. I was a university professor at the Univesity of Chittagong. The Rohingyas progressively leave Burma in small groups.. (Everybody laughs) Altaf: (Asks Faroque) Faroque. Arakan State: Rohingya people in northern Arakan have been passing days and nights in panic because of SPDC authorities have been seizing lethal weapons from Rohingya villages while the Rakhine and Natala villagers have been equipped with lethal weapons and even with guns since 15 days ago.. not even Arakan.htm Prime Minister of Burma.. there was in 1930 and in 1938 anti Indian riots due to the “Burma for the Burmese” campaign led by the Monks mainly from Arakan which made Muslims of Arakan felt the threat of their existence in Burma. called Nagpura. [I]n one day soon after the conquest. my mother! She held me in her arms. said sources. 1961 Formation of army administration in Rohingya areas. keeping inactive has always proven to be less effective. This has to be done by the Rohingya leadership as a thought-out plan with Bangladeshi Rohingya sympathesizers to secure Rohingya rights in Bangladesh.” in SOAS Bullitin of Burma Research 1. Article 30. Abid Bahar By the discrimination of Burma’s authorities. civil servants were forced to give up their jobs all in the name of Burmanization.” What is alarming in this is that. also see Joseph P. Mayu TV in Burmese. 21) BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 69 Aye Chan claims that he is a linguist. But one might wonder how this misinterpretation of a huge magnitude “Tsit-ta-gungin”. Kirakini: Yes. Faroque: They blame the Burmese destroying Arakan. Arabs made the Indian Ocean an Arab lake with their continued contact with the East.. and Australia as if the “Negroes” (the dark—skinned people). Burma missed its first great opportunity to become a modern nation. this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek. the Arakani king was reinstated by the Muslim Sultan of Bengal with “30. Rakhine soldiers. The Moghs branded it as the central government’s divide and rule policy. we need your blessing maa! Siddiq: We just arrived! Why do you want to return maa? Mabud: Siddiq. Thus. . by ultranationalists.. this is the characteristic of SPDC. (43) Under the circumstances. Anwardhta also made Burma a Buddhist Theraveda kingdom.. on the question of the military’s grave human rights violations against stateless Rohingya people. between Chittagong and Cape Negrais. That is why Arakan even earned its legendary name the “Mogher Mulluk” (the lawless society). until the time of U Nu Rohingyas lived as a prosperous community in Arakan But today.” it triggers genocide. thickened the jungles. out of nostalgia must have returned to their ancestral lands.. casual readers of 1942 event might confuse scholarship with propaganda. during Budapawa’s invasion. and cite certain selective census figures.1 (June 1986). the 1978 Rohingya refugees were found to carry Burmese National Registration cards. The pumped up and prejudiced Aye Kyaw’s xenophobic thinking shows he has strayed away from the classical Arakanese Buddhist tradition of compassion and his expression in these papers further show him the disappointing medieval Mogh pirate that still lives in this fake Buddhist heart. aroque: What about the monks? Amena: Monks are good people. Taking advantage of internal chaos created by the Mogh chauvinist. is a professor at Kanda University. in our Rohingya culture. We have to start contact among young people living in the Diaspora. unemployment and bloodshed on its soil and not on destroying relics. Faroque: But who listens. Some Rohingyas fearing danger crossed the border to Bangladesh.” 176 Dr.. Tagore’s Paradigm Exposed in “Dalia” News from Bangladesh. and the Thinga Nugaha Association. but after a time. India. Whereas he keeps his xenophobia and hate in his closet at home in Arakan and pretends to be a great democracy movement leader in abroad..D. While Bangladesh is much more densely populated and technologically advanced than Burma.kaladanpress. Article 9.. Sometimes. The author contests the validity of these claims. Considering the fact that during the 17th century. Education shall be free. Article 10.. 256 Dr. name of the military personals carrying out crimes and very important that prepare name of collaborators in those three categories and publish them in the media and be ready to submit it to the proper authority. These. hear no evil. (12) In 1942 when the British withdrew from Arakan. Government Printing and Stationary. I met many of our our villagers also became refugees…com. the military’s oppression from 1962 culminated into the total denial of the Rohingyas as the citizens of Burma. Abid Bahar their own advantage. which continues to accelerate the worsening of the human rights violations in Arakan. it is the same “Yian ki. the present research found that the production of refugees in general and the Rohingya refugees in particular from Arakan is not a 112 Dr. I walked for two days in search of my mother and brother. He recognized them as his neighbors.15. whose wife Sita was abducted by the demon (Rākshasa) king of Lanka.. 1044 A. kicking from bar to bar. Subsequently when the military junta allowed the registration of the political parties they asked for their parties to be recognized under the name “Rohingya. it appears that it is simply his opinion.com” The Council for Restoration of Democracy in Burma (CRDB)” Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. and the U.. He also proclaimed himself ruler of the newly-annexed territories.) Kalam (Was a pharmacist in Arakan): (goes to Mabud): Mabud.. Abid Bahar Muslims and Hindus of Arakan fled to safety in Chittagong. He used a combination of Greek and Latin words: geno (race or tribe) and cide (killing). After General visit. Maungdaw. electronic or mechanical. then. Mabud: Yes. only 180. paranoia and criminal justification to exterminate the racially and culturally different minorities. Leider. It is an astounding phenomenon that even the Sacks of Arakan today speak the same language as the Rohingyas and Chittagonians. Fear of Democratic Reform and the End of Rakhine Supremacy Aye Chan says.000.. **Mohammad Shah. 3007). 1995.. The tradition of the Kings is indigenous to Burma. They arrived at Taungbro left with 15 cars. racism and sectarianism that are the greatest roadblocks to a united. some Rakhines and Rohingya refugees from Chittagong returned to Arakan. Anis Ahmed…. In addition. In a country with a large ethnic population such as Burma.. Akk means one and abb means water. India. but they outgrew it. Iba Uggwa Kwuror (dog) Motoo.S. 1908 (2) BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 93 (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) Enamul Hoque quoted in Abdul Haque Chawdhury. but I didn’t want to know.” ((7) Rohingya Genocide Rohingyas who don’t want to leave Burma are being used as forced labor to build highways or to carry loads for the military.. If there is any hope of returning to Arakan.. arson and rapes. and scare the rest to leave 40 Dr. gazelles in the forest stop running to hear me. thick lips. I saw her eyes amid the course of a dried up river beds. eat and sleep? Mabud: Yes. “Although they have showed the collective political interest for more than five decades since Burma gained independence. (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government. there is also a huge army of civilian collaborators committing genocidal activities. . These problems are created by State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) authorities as like as 1942 riots between Rohingya and Rakhine communities to divert the attention of the world community or for their secret agenda after arising “Rohingya boat-people crisis” in Southeast Asia. there was a black crow making strange sounds for the past couple of days as if something bad is imminent. most of its member parties operate from inside Bangladesh. (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. History of the Rohingyas. The South Asian World. Abid Bahar. However… Article 6. One of these.” (p. although racially mongoloid. 16. My advice to you is to keep good things from your culture and learn better things from Canadian culture and make a synthesis to become a Rohingya Canadian. Khine Kyaw Kyaw. These include Aung San. shrimp farm maintenance. “Some elements have adopted the radical idea of founding a separate Muslim state. the soldiers began firing into the crowd. 2008 Aung San Suu Kyi still remains in jail. to be patience.txt.. generally speaking. It was during his time that Chakmas. the number of Rohingya death in Arakan was staggering to be over 100. . to Eidgah and traveled to the Naff River and from there by boat to Mrohaung city. Francis Buchanan said that Puran seemed terribly afraid that the Government of Bengal would be forced to give up all the refugees from Arakan to the Burmans… Also see Michael Charney. Rohingya Times. There are also the others that blame Burma’s Theravada Buddhism’s political dimension. Aye Chan. Sanda Suriya. (17) ARAKAN Online Encyclopedia Originally appearing in Volume V02. The country is never the servant of the army. women. “The Plight of Burma’s Stateless.”} Original Message from AYE KYAW to kunyia@freerohingyacampaign. It is seen to survive in Christian.: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan. as enshrined in the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic.. you bastard don’t know. when Rakhines commit genocide. but under the circumstances. in the contemporary period. (8) Arakan. formed a de-facto government. 2004 http://www… neither the Burmese military nor the Arakanese dominant group.000 in Malaysia and about 700. This paper raises the question that in the face of these challenges whether Muslim leadership should calibrate and keep Muslim identity or it will keep it in tandem with the Burmese in this very unique societal context. are there records of the families of “most of these migrants” to justify this claim? The answer is. despite the return of order by the British occupation.. He said his suffering as a former refugee gave him the strength to fight against Burma’s chauvinistic nationalism that caused our own suffering. So choose the middle path called the Siratul Mustakin. says. 1981 Ibid Habib Siddiqui. as if Rohingyas do not exist. APPENDIX 1 TIMELINE WESTERN BURMA AND BANGLADESH Chandra Rule of Arakan There are Arakani folk tales say that the Royal capitals of Arakan dates back to 3000 B. from the group that had departed for the border. Mabud woke up) Amena: Is it time for prayer? Mabud: Ma. Hervey says Arakan had never been populous. Using propaganda. “Where is everybody?” There was a total silence. but our intention is not to kill you.. The Military leaders are even more convinced by these writings. coinage he by the use of force took three thousand seven hundred Muslims from Arakan to Burma. Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions. and loses consciousness.”(3) Clearly. I am not very old. p. 2004 http://www. illegally settled in this region of Burma’s North-Western province. .233 Account of Genocidal Operations Against Rohingyas .. It is important that you and your children learn at least English very well. (18) Abdul Haque Chawdhury. but of the entire international community. regarding the border fencing. And if we keep on going like this we will reach a point where everyone should be thrown out of everywhere as according to science and genetics there is no so called “pure race”. With the military. Mohamed Yonus. wao-global-team@yahoogroups. in 1978 and again in 1991/92. That is why they lost their kingdom they once shared with Arakani Muslim people.google. think-tank research groups should work together to implement research based policies on refugees.. Other emerging questions that as a minority religious ethnic group whether Muslims should understand the elements of Theravada Buddhist culture in cognizance of its own broad range of interests in Burma or following the fatalist view remains isolated within themselves.. The police also extorted 5. CHAPTER 15 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS Burma was born with deep structural problems.474 (Smart 1957: 207-209).” During this time the term “Moghur Mulluk” to refer Arakan as a lawless society came into use. The Frogs were frightened out of their lives by the commotion made in their midst. There were fewer people to cultivate the land. 5.239 Appendix 8: United Nations Human Rights Report . Mother! Don’t play any hide and seek game with me anymore! 162 Dr. in turn. by now they had no food. alone. http://www. In the middle of the village there is a huge tank called Baro Kamoner Dighi and royal gates and a compound floor full of baked Brick known as the Gazzali compound with a huge Mosque and nearby the BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 85 mausoleum of a pir Shah Omar seem very likely to be the place of the ancient Arab Kingdom in Southern Chittagong. Rohingyas vary from very dark to some bronzing colored and unlike the Rakhine yellowish. p. (23) Ralph Fitch mentions the “kingdom of Recon and Mogen” as early as 1585.. bear with me. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. This type of chauvinistic mentality forms the basis of xenophobia in Burma. generally known as the Rohingyas. which is not found in the Arakanese chronicles and in the British records as well… .. they took her after killing the husband. But my friend Kamal from KSA was also complaining about Kirakini’ confusing the community. not any fear but the sign of imminent change Suu’s tears now washes away discrimination and the rotten maze Suu assures Burma will shine again and gain its lost glorious image 261 ISBN: 978-1-4415-9378-8 ªxHSLEOBy59378 zv*:+:!:+:!@ (60882) The book is a compilation of Dr. and southern Chittagong were also inhabited by the soldiers of Bengali sultanate of Gaur who went to Arakan to help reinstead the Noromikhla’s regime. with Burmese Army’s widespread sponsorship of the xenophobic propaganda and its appeal to ignorance has become so well-built in the mainstream and the Burmese democracy movement leaders silence on this issue helped disorient Burmese people in general to believe that Rohingyas are truly the “foreigners in Arakan… He has a thankless job here. The Power of Critical Thinking.org/backgrounder/asia/burma-bck3. so Hafez was never able to ascertain how many casualties were sustained. We know our enemies are not the Rakhines or the Burmans in general. We keep fighting on the net among ourselves. It is now clear that from the time of Burman King Anawrahta’s accession to power. It is because you BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 167 suffered as a Rohingya for which you are brought to Canada. I asked your father.) Despite their racial similarities. Rahmat: the xenophobe Rakhine who says “I have never heard the name Rohingya. Chittagong came under the direct control of Gaur. and especially in Arakan the equal treatment for Muslims seeking agricultural and business loans (Cady 1958: 294). As a consequence. loyal.”(1) Here. UN mission fails to make any breakthrough. for the Rohingyas.” Here in the case of Rohingyas. In our locality… Abid Bahar details of Kei Nemoto’s paper. North and East. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel. hence. I asked people such and such a woman with a child. Thane Myint. the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Some estimates claim that at the time of Burmese invasion of Arakan in 1784. besides cultivating the land should be ready for waging a holy war upon the call by their lords (Rahman 1979: 200-204). it can’t be.. ALP) and are heavily involved in drug trafficking. Dhaka: University Press Ltd. He is wrong in his observation. group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein. Rohingya religion and culture dictate them to be moderate in their behavior. Buthidaung. Rohingyas are denied their birthright. .g.” Muslims have to develop their popular news media among the Burmese people and employ effective intellectuals to help them in this democratic and humanistic endeavor.. the Independent Expert on minority issues. they use only Rakhine heritage and its “exclusiveness. One can correspondingly argue that if similarities between Shans and Thais.” created “the Bengali enclaves” in Arakan after 1926. my brother also deserve very special thanks. Union of Myanmar. No I was not shot. situated between South Asia and South East Asia.. See his recent article for his anti-Rohingya views: “The Rohingya and the Rakhaing. He introduced Persian as the official language of Arakan. Toronto. In our contemporary period. Here the source of his information is missing when he used the word “indeed” to emphasize. Aye Kyaw and others and replace such history with human rights education. we are from Burma. So.Aye Kyaw who was a professor in New York University. On our way.” required to be exterminated. But wait! Now I remember my mother Earth. Therefore.yahoo. 2006 11:58:56 AM http://biblia.. Especially that maa was not feeling well. that land was depopulated.. the life of a refugee is like a foot ball. Rohingya children should be doctors. He confessed this in one of his writings. together with her son.000. The motive seems clear. 2006.. myths and legends have been published formerly in Burma and later in the United States.” referring that Burma is for racially Mongoloid and religiously Buddhist people. meaning cannibals. The xenophobic Arakanese websites and yahoo groups feed these ideas to ordinary Arakani citizens creating more obstacles to democratic development in Burma. comprises less than half of historic Arakan.. 2007. The two Arakanese young men.. Persi. 16) It is mind-boggling to accept Aye Chan’s assertion of the Rohingyas considering the fact that after the second arrival of the Bengal army when Arakan became a province of Bengal… Aye Chan is contradicting himself again. the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The stream of consciousness in both Amena and Mabud’s fragmentary thoughts and sensory feelings about the protagonists in the form of interior monologue were used all along the work. firstly from the Rohingya suffering caused by the Burma’s Chauvinistic nationalism on one hand and their refugee experience on the other. In the present hopeless situation. As though it was not enough for the defying their order. and the majority of its people are followers of the Buddhist faith. “ . Aye Chan says the story Aye Chan says. (22). Amena: No country is better than the country you are born and brought up! I remember many things about my country Burma. the population is being forced to leave Arakan because of a deliberate policy of cleansing. or be renamed as the “Rakhine-Rohingya province. My father said. Francis Buchanan. In other words.” (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan: From Dhanyawadi to 1962 Workshop. i. The Arakanese peasants who fled the Burmese rule and came home after British annexation were deprived of the land that they formerly owned through inheritance. . The British judicial records tell us of an increase in the first decade of the twentieth century in lawsuits of litigation for the possession of land. Due to the nationalist strain in Burmese Buddhism. And the years went by there came to be 50. This is however not the case in the north western corner of Burma’s Arakan province. Kala). In Bandorbon of Chittagong. it is about Burma’s ethnic minorities in general and about Burma’s official definition of who is the native of Burma and who is not has been the issue of debate. Rohingyas lived mostly in the rural existence in green pastures with their abundance of space in coastal regions and in the Kaladan River valleys.”(5) During this time. Burma’s move toward democracy received its greatest setback when Aung San.. food and adequate housing. True.000Rohingyas unofficially live in Bangladesh. which as expected led to the demon king’s defeat and eventual death. 4.. p2. about 120 to 200 soldiers are placed nearby every Rohingya villages.khrg. crossing the Naff River.23) Xenophobia Burmese traditional culture enshrined by the military and its collaborators are characterized by xenophobia. it is you and me here. under Ne Win. For Rohingyas. I think you are right.. (2) In the epic it identifies Ravana of Sri Lanka as the demon king alledged to 94 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 95 have kidnapped the saintly Sita. Abid Bahar The Rohingya-Rakhine-Burman Triangle What is more difficult for the Rohingyas is that they are caught in a triangle between the Burmese military and the Rakhine population of Arakan. surely then you are a charlatan. After all. Galone Operation—1979 18. did not put his robes on properly. the study reveals that the internal troubles in Arakan along with the historic Burman invasions of Arakan from time to time led to the rise of not only the tribal people in Chittagong and in Chittagong Hill Tracts. tries to belittle Muslim influence by saying. the regime has established its own human rights committees. though of being Buddhist. Another Yoke on Rohingya Muslims. They should educate themselves to fight their bigoted enemies. Rakhines now have turned their attention against their fellow Rohingya citizens to exterminate them with the help of the Burmese army. Historically speaking. you have to give aunty some time to rest..” said Pan Cha.. Aye Chan continues. due to our failure to respect each others. in Arakan. We reiterate the important role of minority rights in promoting equitable development. it even began using Muslim coins… India in 2004.” Aye Chan says (p. the Chittagong Hill Tracts. and shot many of the rest dead. He uses strange names like Adward. .. That day in the evening. Salim and many others began to arrive and worries about her. Consequently. In times of stability. to southern part of Arabia. (Irwin 1946: 86).. Habibullah.. 45. Musema and Rutaganda found that sexual violence satisfies the definitional requirements of “causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group. they originated from the mixture of the ancient Dravadian Chandra… Shah Suja masjid and many other sites were being destroyed by the Rakhine hooligans. caused by shortage but also by a ban on transportation of this essential food…22. 2007. comprise 30% of the army out of a population of only 3 million. Rohingya villagers are not allowed to go to another village to do works.(8) It was during this time that Rakhines of Bangladesh in the Cox’s Bazar area. saying “not here but somewhere else. In ancient time Rakhaingland comprised the area of present Bangladesh and the area west of the Rkhaing Roma (Arakan Mountain Range).rohingya. Kirakani: Stop telling us the refugee stories. The answer is not easy 78 Dr. the British conquest of Burma and the introduction of modern institutions was a cataclystmic event which fatally wounded the xenophobic Burman pride in the medieval “masochism” state of mind and provoked it to give birth to its Burman “melancholic” nationalism. which means the turn of a river. Chulalongkorn University. Burma. Orphans stop crying. Rohingya-sounding historical places have been changed to Rakhine-sounding names. Arakan’s Buddhist fundamentalism had its roots in the Monk U Ottoma. inhabitants from the adjacent areas to migrate into fertile valleys in Arakan as agriculturists . respect and love of its people which made it to be called the “Golden age of Arakan. . Those qualities were contrary to the contemporary ideology of Aye Kyaw and Aye Chan’s xenophobia. there have been notable disagreements from distinguished scholars. Since the beginning of this month. Other than their rebellion during the 60’s (which most Burmese ethnic groups did). .. Rohingyas are categorized as noncitizens. In addition. Suja was given the assurance of assylum by the Arakanese Mogh king. . It is still in practice with an Arakani corruption as Rambree. they are now spread all over the world.. Tell them that racism is bad and democracy is good. Abid Bahar The corrupt Nasaka. he got an identity card that designates him as a foreigner in Burma. He was very upset for firing him as a non Buddhist.” They concluded that while the number of individuals targeted is the “necessary and important starting point..” (47) Suffice to say. New arrivals from Burma have been denied access to these camps since 1995 and there are an estimated 100. 1967. 1972. in order to lay claim as the original inhabitants of Arakan. who were the pioneers of the present Rohingalist language and its medieval literature. Abid Bahar Varities of Burmese xenophobic collaborators: (1) Intellectuals/ professors/ politicians: who wrote or gave speeches (2) Anti—Rohingya fake Burmese democracy movement activists: those who are less educated but are active in spreading hatred sometimes done through the net. The Rohingyas progressively leave Burma in small groups. It is the wish of the author that the present work will be translated into both Rohingyalish and Burmese.” (5) The military government’s policy has been assimilation. we had Rakhine people also joined us in the game. the Burmese king took with him 3. Poori! Poori! Poori! I will show you. 1961 4th July Rohingya Mujahids surrenders arms. As a matter of showing implicit favoritism to BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 27 the racially similar Rakhine xenophobes. The Convention on Genocide spells this out unequivocally in Article IV: “Persons committing genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in Article BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 201 III shall be punished. a social welfare minister of NCGUB denied the Rohingyas as the Arakanese people. the Burmese military government was forced by the international community to take back its citizens. “Rakhaing has not always been solely an ethnonym of Buddhist Rakhaing.pdf. using human beings in forced labor or encouraging xenophobia through proto-historians.History of the Rohingyas.” Under the circumstances. and websites that proficiently presented some of the information that were incorporated here. The international covenant of civil and political rights (ICCPR) Article 24 (A) Ibid (2) (3) (4) BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 207 (5) (6) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) BBC Videohttp://www.. Mother. (First tea with home-made items was served). . The other great wave of Rohingya formation was the Bengali and Persian settlements in Arakan through the reigns of Narameikhla’s time beginning from 1430..” Increasing contact and cooperation between Buddhists and Muslims is a necessary condition. In the mean time.(similar type of justifications were made in Hitler’s Germany against German Jew and Catholics and Gypsies) and collect the writings or any evidences. and were in a position to make political alliance with Daw Suu Kyi’s party—the NLD—to form a coalition government in the Arakan state if the military junta had honored the election results. “The derivation of Rohingya from Roainga is very clear. the British census on Burmese population made things complicated for the Arakani Rohingyas.. known as the Mahamuni statue. To understand how xenophobic propaganda undermines people’s democratic tradition.. and blames the British for allowing return of the non-Mongoloid Rohingyas.” Any Muslim moved from the South to the North in the Mayu frontier were even seen by the Burmese as the newly arrived Chittagonians from Bangladesh.” (an unpublished paper) in the Forgotten Kingdom of Arakan: From Dhanyawadi to 1962. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 111 The Burma’s military in alliance with the Rakhine ultra-nationalist plays a extermination policy based on fear and intimidation. people of Malay ancestry are locally called Pashu.” He was born in Arakan and fled the country after Burmese invasion in 1784. It was in the Kalandan and Lemro river valleys where Rohingya Muslims were farmers and peasants.” Burma Digest. In not having this mindset. 2005 Arrest of a Rohingya member of the parliament (MP) U Kyaw Min and given life sentence for helping his people. “In the two years following the decision to nationalize the retail trade. even the defense minister of Arakan was a Muslim. I looked Around and heard a distant thunder. Cited in M.. among the Rakhines. they represented the wider Bosnian Muslim community. you don’t sound educated.. Worst of all if you as a xenophobe are acting strangely. But in our search for the greatest public menace in Burma. the Rohingya. (Mabud talks and greets his friends) She says. the Rohingyamaa. During my work. Tell them. The ANC cannot represent the whole people of Arakan nor be given leadership without any representative from the Rohingya ethnic group although the ANC unanimously decided to lead the Arakan people as declared by the recent ANC conference in Arakan. It is similar to the name Punjab (meeting point of five rivers) in India named by the Persians. Rangoon: Burma Governmen. simply parroted the official Burmese xenophobia suggesting that the Rohingyas are “foreigners” who deserved to be wiped out from Arakan. James Smith. denying historical evidence as the above. But I am back! Rasheed: Like Kirakini. Providing answers to such questions necessitated me for a study whose terms of reference are ambitious and include information on a wide range of themes such as the history and Sociology of Burma and its deep-rooted problems in relation to democratic development. the above can’t be my statement.” (p.000. and had continued nightmares as much that she dies shortly after her arrival and could not enjoy the peace. what is the structural location of these intellectuals..org .com/ rohingyalanguage/ In total fifteen Rohingya Refugees who presently live in USA. in other cases they allowed to return home. What is your story Faroque? Faroque: what can I say? My story is similar to yours except that the actors were different. Onlookers nearby noticed he was wearing the army-issued underpants which are usually worn by soldiers. some conservative estimates put the figure of Rohingya death over 40 thousand. 2007) Introduction: Arakan was a medieval kingdom located at the edge of South Asia became a province of Burma after the Burmese invasion in 1784 and the subsequent annexation of it with Burma. the Aryan king. The anti-Rohingya Rakhine and the xenophobic military leadership committing genocide are shown as the antagonists and then Rohingyas even have their own internal antagonist. justifying the reasons to his followers for committing crimes against humanity through encouraging genocide and producing refugees so as to create room for people of his kind. in Southern Chittagong. stability and the medical assistance available in her new home.. On the contrary the demand for the recognition of their rights sounds a direct challenge to the right of autonomy and the myth of survival for the Arakanese majority in their homeland. Burma could have been the Switzerland of South East Asia if it had followed multiculturalism as its official policy. After that Rohingyas and Rakhines lived in relative harmony and built the Mrouhaung city near Lambree River.” http://www. Lately.org/library/pdf/ ASA160052004ENGLISH/$File/ASA1600504. nay. I went to Thailand and came to Kanada and went to University and now earn lots of money. All are screaming at each other. he is branded as a “foreigner.. what Burmese revolutionaries need is to look not for the “enemies” in ethnic groups but only friends. let me help you. “maa” I responded “maa. However. formed in 1939 .com/2007/12/15/photos-ofanti-muslim-riots-in-bagopegu/ “The .An Unpublished M. Professor Jakaria.. Mabud: Muslims were already present from the 8th century. Abid Bahar Also see KHRG (Karen Human Rights group) website in its “Background on Burma. Indeed.. social and cultural rights and led to various discriminatory practices.org/wiki/ CHAPTER 6 BURMAN INVASION OF ARAKAN AND THE RISE OF NONBENGALI SETTLEMENTS IN BANGLADESH (Part of this paper’s arguments dealing with refugee problems were presented in Geneva at the United Nation’s Human rights conference on minorities and the stateless people held on December 6-7… For.. King Min Khaung Yaza’s Invasion of Arakan (1406) In 1406 A. . Rohingyas today are working with Aung San Su Kyi’s NLD in Burma and with people outside with international lobbying groups to make Burmese people conscious of their fellow citizen’s rights. Set limits for them and keep practicing it early. Rohingyas are still fleeing the Burmese military oppression.. I am fighting on behalf of the humanity against Burma’s chauvinistic nationalism where the worst victims are the Rohingyas. After the battle is over. quotes Moshe Yeagar who “wrote that one of the major reasons of Mujahid rebellion was that the Muslims who fled Japanese occupation were not allowed to resettle in their villages (Yegar 1972:98).. is the group membership restricted. they were being officially declared by the military junta as the non-citizens of Burma. his ideas are to deny Burmese people’s birth rights. it was now officially adopted for Muslims by their leaders to fight xenophobia and to state clearly that they will not settle for a derogatory term—“Kolas” (Negros). said a trader from the village on condition of anonymity. The Illegal Muslims in Arakan.. U Kyaw Min.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=34&Itemid=32 Photos of Pegu riot shows monks even entered inside Mosques to carry out destruction.) “God bless the King” Mabud: Maa. In 2002. we have our news groups. BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 109 a memorandum by the public of Maungdaw demanded the protection of fundamental rights and demanded an unconditional repatriation of Rohingyas from Chittagong. the army now keeps the country together by the use of xenophobia and force. To me generally speaking. “The Arakanese [Rakhines] were a daring and turbulent people.. Reporting the impact of the 1942 events. 6… In the confusion. In dealing with these problems this paper also raises the question. 27) Aye Chan’s source of this information is not from a reliable survey.” As mentioned earlier. Rohingya’s open revolt in Mujahid movement 1949 Karen and Mon revolt 1949 Rohingyas occupy most of north Arakan..hrw.com. sober.. They are discriminated against on the basis of race and religion and are denied citizenship rights.” The book was forwarded by Monk Ashin Nayaka.. p. M. Sometimes I also carried the dead body to burry in the graveyard. Bullies like Kirakinis are typically impulsive. 1942 Japanese occupation of Arakan and the Rakhine-Rohingya Conflict Aye Chan’s article in the xenophobic book “Influx Viruses” talks about the communal disturbance during WW 11. says Rohingyas have lived in Rakhine since the eighth century. Chandra language was Sanskrit.rakhapura. The term Mogh also referred as the “pirates” in the Bay of Bengal. 1992). We have rich businessman who cares. The Naff River is a foot ball ground.. his hypothesis is that Rohingyas settled in Burma after 1824. all the families of our migrating caravan began to pour in our house wherefrom we would start our journey for the uncertain destination altogether.m. He will not listen. no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political. and selfless givers of blessings. But it was not long when capturing human in the vicinity of 118 BURMA’S MISSING DOTS 119 the Bay became a lucrative business for the Mogh pirates. Anuwar: Why? Amena: No reason was given. “The Rohingya and the Rakhaing. His boat was among the first of the twenty to shove off. an Armed Forces Day parade. 1685-1783 Anarchy in Arakan. Abid Bahar (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) The Significance of the term “Kula” for the Rohingyas and the Burmese Muslim. authoritarian mindset.. with so many of its citizens earnestly yearning for democracy.. we were led to the “Ghaat” (shore) of the river where the boats were waiting to carry us. To answer such complex questions. Links : http://www.. you wouldn’t remember it. “The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar). I saw my father go back to Akyab College to teach. the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. loyal to Aye Chan for his stance on the Rohingyas. U Thant. paranoia and fear of the outside world. I changed one city after another. Rasheed: Don’t say anything to my brother! Ok! Hamadan: Stop your silly gestures…rohingyatimes.. the name was officially adapted by the Rohingya leaders during the 50’s to distinguish themselves from the Indian migrants settled in Burma. and Indonesia.” 1797 Both Buddhists and Muslims were equally tortured and mass migration of Arakanese to Chittagong took place. Faroque: (Faroque in his tears. in this work recording the Rohingya people’s suffering in the novel Rohingyamaa. This revealation by international agencies. Aye Chan notes Rakhine returnees after the British conquest of Arakan but ignores the Rohingyas. at about 9:30 am and returned 11:30 am. 2005. Typically. html (9) Ashin Nayaka. rename places.. Chakma’s and the Rohingya’s common living in southern Chittagong only sharpened the practice.. Rohingyas (“Chittagonian Bengalis”} settled in the north of Arakan. and all rushed to the bank to look at the horrible monster. On the contrary.. 2007 held in Tokyo.” (14) Other Bengali sources report that refugees poured into Chittagong as far as up to the Sanga River in Chittagong. He is the co-author of the xenophobic book: Influx Viruses. you said to her to tell your friend that you are not at home is not teaching children not to lie. Burmese king took the Arakani chronicles to Burma proper. Lisboa: S. Bangladesh Union of Rohingya Communities in Europe (URCE). I will be missing a face. Enamul Hoque quoted in Abdul Haque Chawdhury.. They simply just don’t deal with it. I took refuge in the city and left again and kept moving then it was never to return..asp? filename= Ws081207Burma. losing a tooth you gave to me as a gift.. such as.” Contrary to Aye Chan’s perception.” Burma is for Burmans and for Buddhists. according to the teaching. 2000. 1430-1784 MRAUK U DYNASTY: CONTACT WITH INDIAN SEMATIC CIVILIZATION 1430 After 24 years Sultan Jalal uddin Khan sent “Wali Khan as the head of 20 thousand Pathan army” to restore Noromikla to his throne. 14th century A.” He says.. if not hostile. It will show how the continuing Burmese 7 8 Dr. It is scarcely surprising that underprivileged Rohingya. But the worst one is taking place now.com/eng art/Arakanese_Nationalism_and_the_Struggle_for_National_self_R. Edited by Willem van Schendel. Rohingyas lost their country but they still have their national identity. rum Asia. two daughters and a son were also sentenced to 17 years respectively. can Suu Ki thrive if the conditions for the military’s success in remaining in power are not removed? Can the country avoid the vacillation between civilian and military rule that has characterized the history of Pakistan? In this regard..” Here no citation of reference was provided. is bleeding. from where the Arakan Flotilla steamers were ferrying to Akyab and other towns in central and southern Arakan. said another local villager. the father. Siddiq: But maa. Both wanted suffering to end but through different methods. Note: As my deliberation was in progress. PART 2: Problems and Prospects of Growing up in Canada: Growing up as Rohingya Canadian Most of you have lost your country of birth.D.” the tribunal stated: “[T]he part must be a substantial part of that group. In 1853 the Governor of Pathein annexed the southern portion of Thandwe District. They also know very well that it is quite impossible for any Bengali settler to settle in a remote and interior area like Kyawktaw and as such it is quite impossible to find out any Bengali settler among the 40-generation predecessors of the people of Kyawktaw which is at a distance of 4 days journey from Bangladesh. The aim of the Genocide Convention is to prevent the intentional destruction of entire human groups..” (28) This refers to the dispute that if the Burmese naming of the word Rakhing was adopted from the Burmese “bilu” meaning (Rakhasa) or demon. January. Harvey says “The reasoning on which Bodawpaya acted was not peculiar to himself. as a part of its “divide & rule” policy. gives the appearance of innocence and calm—the perfect Burma the military wish to portray. the Rohingyas are a new creation… Against this historic barbarity.. “Refugees. P. Ltd. on-line news-media founded by a group of Arakanese living in exile in Bangladesh… Link: Dalai Lama http://thubtenchodron. There are missing dots in this type of explanation. . Planetarium Station 2005. gentle and helpful! Raise children just like my son Mabud.wordpress. As a result of this historic event.. Ideally. Were you severe or harsh-hearted. (14) V. “Buddhism in Araka: Theories of Historiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms. it could inspire Arakani fundamentalist “Rakkha” Buddhist sentiments spilled over in the otherwise peaceful Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts.. and many Muslims feel that this exacerbated the anti-Islam feelings that had been additionally provoked by the destruction in Bamiyan.. I read your very imprudent letter you sent to our well-wishers like Dr.. her voice is clear. Abid Bahar chaos in Arakan. Abid Bahar of the notorious “Immigration Act”. . that values their opinions. his work for us is as if his prayer or duty to God who created the humanity. Burmese government was forced to take back Rohingyas due to the pressure from international body because Rohingyas were carrying official documents… couldn’t be ascertained..” Workshop. economic. along with a means to 51 52 Dr. ethnic identity. the language of Arakan was predominantly Indo-Semitic (Chittagonian) and the Chakmas and the other smaller groups must have become assimilated with the Chandras and their Chittagonian language. in Arakan. This common tendency could also be seen among some of the Burmese pro-democracy movement leaders in exile who in line with the Rakhine xenophobes believe that simply ignoring the Rohingya issue will help the problem go away. Article 28. as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrator. said in return “Maaaaaaaaaa. We settled in Buthedaung. after all. and the Rohingyas of Arakan. how can the ANC lead the whole Arakan people? It is impossible for the ANC to form any government or any political representation role without Rohingyas in Arakan. Buddhism is known as a religion of peace. Abid Bahar Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy. and parliamentary secretary) to keep in view the difficulties to be remedied on grant of Arakan state. (20) David Law writes: “The Rohingya are being forced into large-scale internment camps where they are being prevented from marrying legally. gives a brief account of the flights of Indian refugees from Burma to Bengal/ India: 30 Dr. meaning “to protect” is implied in the local Buddhist literature) to protect the Rakhine’s racial purity. the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing. The relief commodities given by different international organizations for these returning refugees were not distributed among them and instead were distributed elsewhere. paranoid and oppressed.. how are they communicating with the rest of the society. I had visited camps in Taknaf and Ukiya in Chittagong in Bangladesh and interviewed and observed refugee situation there. 1995.. Brigadier Aung Gi termed Rohingyas a “peaceful community” 1961 U Nu’s declaration of Buddhism as the state religion of Burma and reaction among the Karen Christians. but the fear of uncertainity still persisted and those returnees must be driven by nostalgia and we see even other Rohingyas preferred to work in Arakan only as “seasonal labourers. August 09. 15) In the above. One can legitimately question: why? Contrary to Aye Chan’s claims. the first time when the Rohingya refugee problem drew the international attention. the founder of Mrauk-U Dynasty (1430-1784) regained the throne with the military assistance of the Sultan of Bengal..” This resulted in the depopulation of minority groups such that “there are valleys where even today the people have scarcely recovered their original numbers. Military Operation of 1991/92 In late 1991. They normally pick on Muslims as easy targets and the public enemy number one. this constitutional act reminds us of the story of ‘the wolf and the lamb’ where the lamb was in the downstream but then blamed by the wolf for mudding the water. 1988. is different. After the failure of a flag meeting between Bangladesh and Burma on April 8.” The intensity of the nationalist hatred by the military reached so deep into the Burmese consciousness that today even some Burmese people began to believe that indeed Rohingyas are “Chittagonians” from Bangladesh. 82. even during the British period when law and order was restored with British initiatives. Siddiq: Interesting maa. Faroque comes in) Mabud: Anuwar

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